Note: The information on this website is not a substitute for
and treatment by a qualified, licensed professional.
to All About Magnetic Healing
The power of the magnet is one of the most basic powers in nature. We know that
magnetism itself was an ingredient in the primordial soup from which the universe and our planet came forth. Magnetism is
the force that keeps order in the galaxy, allowing stars and planets to spin at significant velocities. And in a sense, our
own planet's magnetic field is responsible for protecting all life on earth.
This book is about how we can use the power of magnetism to optimize health. Today,
we are at an exciting juncture in the evolution of health care as biomagnetic therapy fast becomes one of the most promising
new therapeutic interventions. Actually, biomagnetic therapy is not new to everyone. Many veterinarians have been aware of
biomagnetic benefits for years, and use magnets to heal fractures quickly, thereby saving the lives of race horses and other
animals. Doctors treating professional athletes commonly recommend magnets to speed up recovery from painful injuries. And
other physicians in a variety of specialties, including dermatologists, internists, pediatricians, and surgeons, are seeing
excellent results as well.
That magnetic healing is nothing new can be seen by looking at early records of
scientifically advanced civilizations, which tell us that magnetic forces have long been prized for their restorative properties.
Ancient Greece discovered the very first natural magnet in the form of the lodestone, and Hippocrates, the father of medicine,
noted its healing powers. The Egyptians, too, described the divine powers of the magnet in their writings, and Cleopatra frequently
adorned herself with magnetic jewelry to preserve youthfulness. Chinese manuscripts dating back thousands of years describe
the Eastern belief that the life force, termed "qi", is generated by the earth's magnetic field. Today, many believe that
certain places on earth, such as Lourdes, France, and Sedona, Arizona, owe their healing powers to naturally high levels of
this qi, or biomagnetic energy.
It should be noted that today, magnetic therapy is well established in other countries,
such as Japan, China, India, Austria, and Germany. In the U.S., unfortunately, many healing techniques readily accepted by
other traditions are only familiar to those practitioners on the cutting edge. Although state-of-the-art American medicine
uses techniques to monitor magnetic fields, such as electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, and magnetic resonance imaging,
it has not taken other forms of magnetic therapy seriously. More and more American studies, however, are confirming the value
of the magnetic approach. As a result, magnet therapy is gaining credibility in the U.S. and being applied by increasing numbers
of doctors and other health practitioners to treat a wide range of ailments. Now awareness of this modality is filtering down
to the general public, as increasing numbers of people are sleeping on magnetic beds at night and wearing small magnets during
the day for greater energy, preventive purposes, and healing. It is with the idea of expanding this awareness of a natural
healing option that I have interviewed a wide range of clinicians, scientists, and patients, and written this book.
Finally, no one claims that magnetic therapy is going to work for everyone. However,
ample evidence suggests that seven out of ten people experience a beneficial effect. One is led to ponder if when Hippocrates
wrote, "The natural force within each of us is that greatest healer of all," he did not have magnetic energy in mind.
ISSUES IN MAGNET THERAPY
Research into magnet therapy is divided into two distinct areas:
pulsed bioelectric magnetic therapy and fixed magnetic therapy. Probably 85 to 90 percent of the scientific literature is
on pulsed bioelectric biomagnetic therapy; the remainder is on therapy with fixed solid magnets. As is always the case, research
interest and funding have been where there is proprietary gain. No patents can be issued for work done on fixed magnets, but
certainly they can be for pulsed magnetic devices. Since it cannot necessarily be assumed that a positive result from pulsed
bioelectric magnets will automatically translate to a positive result from a fixed magnet, there needs to be more study in
the area of fixed magnets.
Another reality of this still developing field is that there are different schools
of thought on the essential mechanisms of magnetic therapy, centered on questions of polarity, among other issues. In this
book I have tried to draw on the input of the most responsible scientific and medical representatives from varying points
of view. These are not lay marketeers passing along misinformation. Rather, these sources are qualified M.D., Ph.D. research
scientists and clinicians who have spent years in the field.
One is Dr. William Pawluk*, of Chicago, a board-certified family physician in both
Canada and the United States and Assistant Professor in the School of Hygiene and Public Health and School of Medicine at
Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Pawluk*, who is vice president of the North American Academy of Magnetic Therapy, lectures extensively
on magnetism and combines magnetic therapy and acupuncture in his practice. He has written a chapter on magnetic therapy for
the Textbook of Complementary Medicine (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore) and has undertaken the noble task of studying and
translating a comprehensive body of foreign research on magnetism and its applications.
Another perspective comes from John Zimmerman, Ph.D., one of the leading authorities
in America on the subject of magnets. He is president of the Bio-Electro-Magnetics Institute, an independent, nonprofit, educational,
research organization dedicated to furthering our understanding of bioelectromagnetism. Dr. Zimmerman has published extensively
and is currently conducting a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effectiveness of fixed magnets for low back pain.
He is also a member of the North American Academy of Magnetic Therapy.
On some points the two main schools of thought think alike. They generally agree
in their discussion of size, strength, and placement of magnets, and duration of treatment. Where they disagree is at the
basic physics level regarding when to use a positive or a negative pole. There is also some confusion, as we shall see, about
the correct labeling of poles on magnets. But controversy is par for the course in a developing field, and irrespective of
which school is ultimately found right, each has enough positive clinical, anecdotal, and scientific results to show that
Magnetism and Electromagnetism
What is the difference between a fixed magnet and an electromagnetic
device? Simply put, a fixed magnet emits a magnetic field, while an electromagnetic apparatus gives off an electric and magnetic
field. Dr. John Zimmerman elaborates: "Magnetism and electromagnetism are different sides of the same coin. However, unlike
a coin, electromagnetism has three sides rather than two. They are the electric field, the magnetic field, and the electromagnetic
"Electric fields are associated with the displacement of charged particles, usually
electrons, but sometimes charged particles called ions. An example of an electric field occurs when you shuffle your feet
across a carpet and touch a doorknob. The carpet pulls some electrons from your body and your clothing, leaving you with a
deficiency and the carpet with an excess. When you touch the doorknob, it pulls up electrons to satisfy your deficiency, and
it balances the electrical charge, creating a spark in the process. Electrical fields are measured in units called volts per
meter (vpm) or volts per centimeter (vpc).
"The next side of the three-sided coin is the magnetic field. A magnetic field
is caused by electrical charges in motion, as opposed to an electric field, which is produced by electrical charges in different
concentrations, more in one place than the other, regardless of whether or not they are moving. You cannot see the electrical
current in a magnet; you have to delve deeper into the structure of matter to understand.
"In a static magnet, the electrical current moves in terms of electrons orbiting
around the atomic nuclei. An iron body is magnetized when the electrons become aligned to a greater degree."
Zimmerman goes on to explain that the best way to describe magnetism in a permanent
magnet is to make an analogy with the military: "Imagine all the atoms in an unmagnetized block of iron to be soldiers in
a barracks going about their daily business. Some may be brushing their teeth, while others read magazines, and others lie
in bed. Then, the captain walks in, and the drill sergeant says, 'Fall in.' Everybody scrambles to fall in place, aligning
themselves in the same direction with a certain amount of space between them. The difference before and after the command
'Fall in' is analogous to the difference between an unmagnetized block of iron before and after being subjected to a magnetizing
force. The magnetizing force commands electrons, and the atoms in the block of material literally fall into place. Once they
become aligned in the same direction, you have a permanent magnet."
Magnetism can also be produced by currents in a wire, Zimmerman continues, and
these magnetic fields are due to the electrons in the wire. "If it's a 60 cycle per second (cps) current, like a wall outlet,
electrons shuffle back and forth, creating 60 full cps. But they really don't go anywhere. They're like the tide going in
and out of the ocean, going first in one direction and then the other. But the tide really never goes anywhere outside of
that predetermined length of run. Electrons in a wire, in a lamp cord, or in a power line, are very similar. They'll basically
go back and forth, producing a magnetic field in the area around it."
How does this differ from electromagnetic radiation? This is the third side of
the coin, Zimmerman explains. "EMR occurs when you have charges that accelerate or decelerate very quickly. Imagine a glass
of water filled almost to the very top. You slowly dip a spoon into and out of the water, and every time you change direction,
you accelerate the motion of the spoon. If the rate of that acceleration and deceleration is relatively slow, you can dip
the spoon in and out of the nearly full glass of water all day long, and not much will happen. The water will stick to the
spoon, and when you pull the spoon out of the water, it will have some water droplets adhere to it. When you put it back in,
it will go back into the glass of water.
"What happens, though, if you start to accelerate the motion of that spoon? Obviously,
water is going to start flying off of it. This is exactly what happens when you produce EMR. At a certain rate of change of
velocity that is analogous to moving a spoon into and out of the water very quickly, charged particles, called photons, come
off of the source of the moving electric charges, much like water droplets coming off of the spoon that's rapidly moving in
and out of the glass of water. Photons, noncharged massless entities which carry the electromagnetic force across space, are
frequently pulled off of the charged couriers, much like water droplets coming off the spoon being rapidly lowered into and
raised from a glass of water. This is what we refer to as EMR." As the name implies, electromagnetic radiation contains two
distinct fields: an electric field, measured in volts per meter or volts per centimeter, and a magnetic field, which is measured
in units called teslas, or gauss. (One tesla equals 10,000 gauss.)
The effectiveness of using pulsed magnetic fields to heal bone fractures and, to
a lesser degree, soft tissue injures such as sprains and strains, is quite well documented. Numerous scientific journals have
reported these findings since the 1970s, and the FDA approves the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields for the treatment of
nonunion bone fractures, which are fractures that will not heal on their own. It is believed that the pulsed electromagnetic
fields penetrate the cast and get to the layer of skin that's moist and conductive. Then the electric field stops, but the
magnetic field continues to do the healing work.
Clinical experience suggests other uses for electromagnetic devices. Hundreds of
articles substantiate claims of benefit for a large number of conditions, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis,
fibromyalgia, tension headaches, migraines, and Parkinson's disease.
Fixed magnets are believed to help these conditions, as well as others, and are
generally more economical and less complicated to use. Doctors have presented papers at the North American Academy of Magnetic
Therapy, citing success with fixed magnets in patients with congestive heart failure and various types of cancerous conditions.
A Canadian research project is investigating the effects of fixed magnets on fibromyalgia; specifically, the researchers want
to determine whether sleeping on a magnetic pad helps to reduce the pain associated with the condition. Rheumatoid and osteoarthritis
have been reported to respond very well to magnetic field therapy using fixed individual magnets.
The Polar Controversies
If you are looking for confusion, controversy, and contradictions,
you might want to follow politics, or better yet, you might want to look into the questions surrounding the naming of magnetic
poles. For instance, is the south pole true south? And is the north pole true north? How a magnetic pole is named is dependent
upon convention, and not all conventions are alike. Therefore, you may be getting two magnets from two companies where corresponding
sides are called north on one magnet and south on the other. Dr. Zimmerman explains: "We need to understand that there are
two ways of naming the north pole of the magnet: convention one and convention two. You have to know which convention you're
dealing with. Otherwise, what you're calling north somebody else may be calling south.
"Way one of naming the poles of the magnet is called the traditional, scientific,
sailor navigation type of way. It assumes that if you suspend a bar magnet on a pivot point, like a compass needle, or maybe
on a string from the ceiling, the part of the magnet that points north is labeled the north pole of the magnet, and obviously
that end of the magnet that points geographically south is the south pole of the magnet." Zimmerman says that this traditional
way of naming the poles is not the one used by most people employing biomagnetic therapy.
"In the biomagnetic nomenclature of identifying the poles of the magnet, it's just
the opposite," Zimmerman explains. "That end of the magnet that points north is labeled the south pole because it's attracted
to the north pole of the earth. That end of the magnet that attracts the south pole of the earth is labeled the north pole
of the magnet because opposites attract."
Zimmerman goes on: "People might say, 'Gee, in the traditional way of naming magnets,
how can the north pole be pointing north?' The answer uses rather complex reasoning. I don't mean to confuse people, but in
the traditional way of naming the poles of the magnet, the reason the north pole of the magnet points north is that the traditionalists
assume that the south magnetic pole of the earth is located in the northern hemisphere. That sounds backwards, complex, and
confusing, and it is. But that's the way traditional science textbooks and physics textbooks often get around the conundrum
that the north pole of the magnet is pointing north. They say that the south pole is located in the northern hemisphere.
"That's all very confusing to people, so we like to focus our attention on what
we call the biomagnetic definition, which avoids that complexity. It assumes that the north pole of the magnet is where it's
supposed to be--in the geographic north pole of the earth, and the south pole is in the southern hemisphere. With this definition,
a suspended bar magnet, or the arrowhead of a compass needle that points north, is always the south end of the magnet or the
south end of the compass needle. Stated another way, if you have a magnet that is flat, and you want to know which end is
north, approach it with a compass needle. That end of the magnet that attracts the arrowhead of the compass needle is the
biomagnetic north pole."
Another controversy revolves around the issue of when to use the north, or negative,
pole and when to use the south, or positive. One school of thought is based on the ideas of Davis and Rawls, whose studies
done in the 1930s suggest that exposure to biomagnetic negative poles enhance health, while biomagnetic positive poles exacerbate
disease. More recently, Dr. William Philpott has been championing the Davis and Rawls point of view and drawing conclusions
based upon his own clinical experience. Here is what Philpott feels each pole will do:
North (Negative) Pole
Promotes tissue alkalinization
Promotes sound, restful sleep
Increases tissue oxygenation
Calms the nervous system
Assists in relief of addictive tendencies
South (Positive) Pole
Accelerates growth indiscriminately
Promotes tissue acidity
Decreases tissue oxygenation
Makes sleep less sound and restful
There are those who support the claims of Philpott. Yet, scientists wishing to
duplicate the work of Davis and Rawls cannot find any data to work from. And a search of the literature shows Philpott to
be making more claims than scientific evidence can support at this time. Philpott also promotes his own magnets and may therefore
be biased. This is not to say that these claims are false; however, more scientific research confirming or disproving these
claims needs to be done.
The only study to date on this issue was published in the September 1990 issue
of the "Journal of the National Medical Association." Scientists took petri dishes full of cancer cells and put them
in either the biomagnetic north pole end of a magnetic resonance imaging facility or the biomagnetic south pole end. In three
weeks, the petri dishes in the north pole end exhibited a dramatic decrease in cell growth, which is what you what you want
to see with cancer cells. The dishes in the south end exhibited a slight, but detectable, increase in the rate of cell growth.
This is the first experiment to address this question, and more work is clearly needed.
To add confusion to the issue, some scientists believe that there is no strong
evidence supporting the use of one pole over another. This point of view is especially prevalent in Russia. Japanese manufacturers
who uphold this point of view sell magnetic mattress pads that expose the body to both north and south fields, although some
experts have warned against this practice.
Dr. Zimmerman is currently studying the difference between unipolar and bipolar
magnets in the treatment of low back pain. The unipolar magnets have flat surfaces and expose the subject to just one field,
while bipolar magnets expose the skin to both fields simultaneously. They are designed with alternating spatial patterns of
north and south poles, so they may be arranged, for example, as concentric circles, like a target, as alternating squares,
analogous to a checkerboard, or as alternating triangles. Both types of magnets have their proponents, and Dr. Zimmerman is
seeking to address the issue from a scientific point of view rather than be influenced by manufacturers' advertising.
An argument against the north/south dichotomy is made by Dr. Pawluk*, who says
that there is no proof that magnet wearers are being exposed to just one polarity. Pawluk questions the existence of a purely
north or south field as he talks about the impossibility of the "blocked wall concept": "The problem with the 'blocked wall'
is that in a magnetic field, molecules line up perfectly and produce lines of force that are very strong in one direction.
The lines of force bend around and then turn back on themselves. You have one molecule on one side that's lined up in one
direction and one molecule on the other side lined up in the opposite direction. When they bend around, they cancel each other
"Let's assume the upper part of the magnet is the north pole," Pawluk* continues.
"Then the bottom part will be the south pole. At the top part, the lines of force are north pole lines. In physics, I'm not
sure anyone can make a distinction between a line of force coming out of the upper side or north side of the magnet versus
the line of force that's coming from the south side. It's not like cold and hot water. There's no scientific evidence proving
that they are different. If you move away from the edge of the magnet by an inch or half an inch, and you measure the area
with a magnetometer, you'll find that the field has changed from positive to negative. Say the top surface is positive. If
you move one inch to the side, you'll find, when you measure the area with a magnetometer, that the field has changed and
become negative. It goes from a north to a south pole. What that means is that at any given time with a permanent magnet you
are actually being exposed to both the north and south pole. When you have a very dense magnet there's obviously a higher
concentration of south pole at the surface than there is at the sides. Nevertheless, you're actually being exposed to both
In summation, Dr. Pawluk* explains that most scientists now believe that permanent
magnets create their effects because of the drop in the field, or what is known as the gradient. The change in polarity may
be what is producing the effect in the body. In other words, both north and south poles are entering the body at any given
moment, and the entirety of the magnet is what is doing the healing.
HOW MAGNETS ARE USED
While very little research on magnet therapy has been done
in the United States, there has been a lot of work in this field in Russia, Czechoslovakia, and the Western European nations
over the past 30 years. This discrepancy parallels an experience I had about 15 years ago when I approached the FDA to see
what information they had concerning glandular implants as a way of rejuvenating body systems. They said there had not been
a single study done and that it was quackery. A quick review of the American literature did suggest there was never a study
done in the United States. But after going to Vienna, Austria, as well as to Heidelberg, Germany, and interviewing scientists
and clinicians working in the field of glandular implants, I was provided with over 500 studies published in the peer-reviewed
literature. Similarly, if you look for research on fixed magnets in the United States, you will find a paucity and think there
is a minimum of hard evidence. However, if you were to go to Russia, where magnetism is a well-regarded and highly respected
science, you'd find hundreds of studies on fixed and pulsed magnetic therapy. It is rare for an American physicist to read
Russian, and hence review their literature. But Dr. William Pawluk* has done just that and shares his views in our Clinicians'
Reports section, showing that there is more than adequate reason to feel very positive and assured about the nature of this
Even if you do not have access to the research, magnets are simple to use. So,
why not give them a try? My suggestion would be to use magnets on yourself as if you were performing a single controlled study.
Listen to what your body tells you. If you have had unremitting arthritis pain in your hands and apply a magnet to it, you
may find that three days later you no longer have pain for the first time in 10 years. Remember, your own experience is valid.
This book is an effort to combine practical common-sense usage and good clinical experience. Science will simply have to catch
A Complementary Therapy
Of course nobody is saying that magnets are a be-all and cure-all. They
should not be used by themselves for any major disease or medical condition, but rather, they should be looked upon as an
adjunctive therapy. My own personal experience is that magnets work best in combination with other healing modalities. Ever
since seventh grade, I have been a competitive athlete, winning dozens of USA track and field national championships, regional
championships, and over 300 local races. And I have set numerous American records. Therefore, I know my body well. When I
sustained a severe hamstring injury, I used magnets--small, medium, and large, from 500 gauss to 5000 gauss--wearing them
for 15 minutes at a time and sleeping with them taped to my leg. The magnets hastened my recovery.
A year and a half later, I reinjured the same hamstring. This time, I used magnets
in addition to intravenous vitamin C drips, glutathione, calcium, magnesium, quercetin, and other nutrients at very high dosages.
The first hamstring injury required almost three months to heal using magnets alone; the reinjury required two weeks to heal.
I have seen the same results throughout my career when multiple therapies were used instead of an individual one. Hence, I
believe that magnets should be used in combination with other healing modalities, which may include therapeutic touch, acupuncture,
acupressure, deep or soft tissue massage, and compresses, to name just some of the approaches available.
While magnets are generally safe, there are times when they should not be used.
Here are some caveats to keep in mind:
Pregnancy Until research proves
otherwise, pregnant women should not wear magnets, particularly over the abdominal area, which would expose the fetus to the
magnetic fields. Using magnets on the shoulder, arm, or elbow, however, would not expose the fetus and would be allowable.
Pacemakers Individuals wearing
heart pacemakers or other electronic implanted devices should not use magnets near the apparatus. A magnet should not be suspended
over the heart, for instance. Nor should they be worn on the mid-back where the magnetic field affects the heart from the
opposite side. It is all right, though, to wear magnetic insoles for sore, tired feed, or a magnetic pad on the elbow, knee,
Bleeding Wounds Magnets lessen
the stickiness of platelets, blood components that make a scab after you cut yourself. So, if you use a magnet when you have
an active bleeding wound, you may actually increase the amount of bleeding in the wound. It's best, then, to wait until the
wound gets sticky or starts to show evidence of healing. Apply magnets at that point. Definitely do not use magnets if you
are on anticoagulants or if you have a condition, called polycythemia, that increases the likelihood of bleeding.
Bipolar Magnets for Those with Infections and Cancer
People with cancer or any sort of infection, like candida, fungi, viruses, or bacteria, should avoid exposure to bipolar magnets.
As we've mentioned, many believe from their observations and clinical experiences that the south pole accelerates the growth
of cancer cells, bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Not all practitioners and manufacturers agree, but until the research proves
otherwise, it is prudent to err on the side of caution, and only use products with north-facing magnetic fields.
Considerations When Using Fixed Magnets
The effectiveness of magnetic treatment depends largely on
four factors, according to Dr. John Zimmerman: strength, thickness, number of magnets used, and spacing.
First, magnets vary in strength, and it's important to remember that stronger magnets
penetrate more deeply than do weak ones and that the reading at the surface of the magnet is different from the reading at
its core. In other words, a magnet that is a 2000 gauss at its core may only be 200 gauss at its surface. If the problem area
is covered by a thick layer of skin--say, at the thigh--the magnet may not be able to penetrate deeply enough to make a real
difference. A strong, thick magnet will be needed. To penetrate 4 inches, one needs a 300-gauss magnetic field, and to get
that strength, one may need a magnet of about 8000 or 10,000 gauss at its surface. These are hard to find but can sometimes
be purchased through commercial distributors.
Neodymium and ceramic magnets tend to be more powerful than the plastalloy type.
In general, the magnets that people should be purchasing are unipolar. They are flat-surface magnets that are magnetized along
the direction of the surface. Note that horseshoe and bar magnets are not suitable for therapeutic application as they are
magnetized on both ends or at the ends of the U-shape. Commonly, the magnets used therapeutically are either circular or rectangular.
Several can be stacked for increased gauss strength and, therefore, greater effectiveness.
The thicker the magnet, the greater the depth of penetration. The down side to
this is that, with increasing thickness, the magnet becomes more uncomfortable to wear. As a compromise one can wear magnets
between 1/4 and 3/8 of an inch thick.
Manufacturers often stack a number of magnets closely together in the same direction.
The more magnets that a manufacturer includes in its product, the stronger the magnetic field and the greater the depth of
The final factor in magnet effectiveness has to do with the thickness or spacing
of the pad between the magnet and the skin's surface. Usually, this space is pretty small--about an eighth or a quarter of
an inch. This spacing makes the magnet more comfortable to wear and also smooths out the bumpiness of the magnetic field.
Dr. Zimmerman explains: "There's a phenomenon called south pole bleed-through.
If you have a magnet that's a standard 3/8 of an inch thick by 7/8 of an inch wide by 1-7/8 inches tall, on one side of the
magnet you have the north pole, and on the other side you have the south pole across the surface, 7/8 x 1-7/8 inches. For
round figures' sake, we'll call it 1 x 2. Across this 1 x 2 inch magnet, one side is north and the other is south. If you
take a sensitive magnetometer, and you hold it against the north side, you will read north everywhere along the surface of
that magnet until you reach the very edge. At the edge of the magnet, you'll start seeing south pole. That's called south
pole bleed-through. Relatively few magnet manufacturers realize this.
"The way to avoid south pole bleed-through has to do with an interaction between
this number and the spacing of the magnets and the thickness of the pad between you and the magnet. If you have relatively
few magnets spaced far apart--say 12 magnets spaced two inches apart--then you must have a thickness of some substantial amount,
say two or three inches, before the magnetic field will become uniform. If you have a dozen magnets in a 3 x 4 array, in between
each individual magnet you'll see the south pole. If you move a distance away from the magnet, say two or three inches, all
the measured polarity will be north. There will be no south pole bleed-through. But if the magnets are spaced two inches apart,
the thickness of the spacer must be rather substantial, say two, three, or four inches, to avoid south pole bleed-through.
That makes the magnets much weaker, and it makes the pad uncomfortably thick. To avoid that, you can place the magnets much
closer together. Instead of two inches apart, you can place them half an inch apart. Of course, if you space the magnets half
an inch apart, you have to have more magnets. So, instead of having one dozen magnets, you might have three or four dozen.
This increases the weight and the cost of the product, but the advantage is that it allows you to use a much thinner pad.
In sum, if you space the magnets a certain distance apart, and you have a certain thickness of pad between you and the magnets,
you'll get an entirely uniform north pole field."
Zimmerman goes on to say that because of south pole bleed-through, you want the
magnet to be larger than the size of the area being treated. So while if you are treating a finger joint for arthritis, a
small magnet is needed, if you are treating a large area, like the abdomen, a much larger magnet is called for.
There are more than two dozen magnet manufacturers (see Resources section). Dr.
Zimmerman recommends a company in Deer Park, Washington, called Tengam, as an inexpensive source. He also suggests making
an agreement with the seller of the magnet to offer a money-back guarantee if substantial relief is not obtained within 30
days. Reputable companies are likely to make and stand behind such an offer.
Magnets have been used therapeutically to relieve pain and
discomfort for thousands of years, perhaps even longer than acupuncture, which is over 2000 years old. The first reported
therapeutic use of magnets involved the grinding up of a naturally occurring material called magnetite and the application
of this in poultice form to uncomfortable areas of the body.
Magnetite makes for a relatively weak magnet by today's standards. But since the
earth's naturally occurring magnetic field was far higher in the past (2 to 3 gauss as opposed to 1/2 gauss today), magnetite
crystals may have been stronger at one point in time. Still, this is a weak field by today's standards as one can easily buy
a magnet with an internal gauss strength of 10,000 (1 tesla) or more. Such high exposures do not appear in any way detrimental;
at worst, they seem harmless and at best they appear to help a variety of conditions.
Exposure to the earth's magnetic field plays an essential role in our health, a
fact clearly demonstrated when the first astronauts returned to earth sick. Their illness was soon attributed to a lack of
magnetism in outer space and the problem was subsequently resolved when NASA placed magnets in their space suits and spaceships.
It has since been discovered that in the absence of a magnetic field, the energy
level of atoms diminishes. Necessary nutrients become depolarized and unusable. If this condition is permitted to continue,
the body can become imbalanced and function improperly. By restoring balance to an organism, biomagnetic therapy can alleviate
a number of health conditions. Some of the most common applications of magnets are described below:
Relief from Pain and Discomfort The most common use of magnetic
fields is in the treatment of pain, with reports of successful treatment in a wide variety of conditions, including arthritis,
rheumatism, fibromyalgia, back pain, headaches, muscle sprains and strains, joint pain, tendonitis, shoulder pain, carpal
tunnel syndrome, and torn ligaments.
A noteworthy American double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of
static magnets on the treatment of arthritis was recently published in the ®MDBR¯Journal of Rheumatology®MDNM¯ (November 1997,
p. 1200). The study confirms the effectiveness of magnets in relieving the pain of arthritis. Another scientific study of
similar rigor is being carried out by Dr. Zimmerman, and is looking at the effects of fixed magnets on low back pain. There
is good reason to expect confirmation of what users have been claiming for years--that magnets are an excellent aid to pain
To understand how magnets work to alleviate pain, it may help to look at pain mechanisms
in the body. Pain is transmitted along nerve cells as an electric signal. While quiescent, the nerve has a small charge of
about -70 mV. A pain signal depolarizes a cell. Magnets appear to raise the depolarization potential of the cell so that the
signal is blocked from depolarization, in effect, blocking the pain. Furthermore, the ability of the nerve to send pain is
slowed by a magnetic field. These phenomena can aid in the relief of pain throughout the body.
Pain relief may be enhanced when a magnet's negative pole is placed over certain
acupuncture meridians. Research and clinical experience show that magnets increase energy (qi) along these points. The combination
of therapies works synergistically so that their combined effects are greater than the sum of their effects would be if they
were used separately. In addition, acupuncturists like magnets because they are painless and allow the treatment to continue
long after a visit.
Reduction of Inflammation and Improved
Circulation. Injured tissue emits a positive charge; placing the
negative pole of a magnet over the area appears to restore a natural balance in the following way: The magnet improves circulation,
allowing blood vessels to dilate and bring a greater volume of blood flow to the injured area. This helps to bring in natural
healers and to remove the toxic byproducts of inflammation--bradykinens, prostaglandins, and histamines--all of which contribute
to inflammation and pain. Thus, pain and inflammation are diminished and tissue healing is stimulated. Injured tissue emits a positive charge; placing the negative pole of a magnet over the area appears to restore
a natural balance in the following way: The magnet improves circulation, allowing blood vessels to dilate and bring a greater
volume of blood flow to the injured area. This helps to bring in natural healers and to remove the toxic byproducts of inflammation--bradykinens,
prostaglandins, and histamines--all of which contribute to inflammation and pain. Thus, pain and inflammation are diminished
and tissue healing is stimulated.
Antimicrobial Effects Magnetic therapy can help the body ward off such microbial invaders as viruses, bacteria,
and fungi. It achieves this, in part, by increasing immune function through the oxygenation of white corpuscles, an important
part of the immune system's arsenal. Magnetic therapy can help the body ward off
such microbial invaders as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. It achieves this, in part, by increasing immune function through
the oxygenation of white corpuscles, an important part of the immune system's arsenal.
A magnetic field can also function like an antibiotic by lowering acidity, with
the result that microorganisms have a more difficult time surviving. In addition, hormonal production is regulated, altering
enzymatic activity and biochemical messengers of the immune system. For example, the pineal gland is one large electromagnetic
entity. The net effect is to augment the body's natural ability to resist a variety of germs.
Stress Reduction The recent discovery of magnetite in the cells of the brain helps explain the calming
effect of biomagnetic therapy. A magnetic field applied to the head calms as well as induces a hypnotic sleeping effect on
the brain by stimulating the hormone melatonin. Melatonin is known to be anti-stressful, producing a sedating effect in insomniacs.
This finding has led to the manufacture of magnetic pillows and pads designed to provide a sound and restful sleep. A person
can then awaken with more energy and fewer aches and pains.
Correction of Central Nervous System Disorders Dr. William Philpott claims that biomagnetic therapy can help central nervous system
disorders. He states that such symptoms as hallucinations, delusions, seizures, and panic can be alleviated through biomagnetic
therapy without disrupting the patient's mental alertness and orientation. Also, a magnetic field may reduce the need for
tranquilizers and antidepressants. Magnets have been used as well to stop epileptic seizures.
Energy Enhancement Biomagnetic therapy is known to increase general well-being by enhancing energy. The normal
polarization of a positively charged nucleus with a negatively charged outer membrane permits a cell to function as a healthy
entity. However, as the cell performs its daily functions, it becomes depolarized. Depolarized cells equal a tired person.
It is believed that magnetic energy has the ability to penetrate all facets of the human body and reach every cell. That translates
to greater energy and vitality throughout the body as a whole. Consequently, supplemental biomagnetic therapy can help the
One normally revitalizes biological energy during sleep. This can be enhanced by
sleeping in a magnetic field. Then, anabolic hormones, such as melatonin and DHEA, are made. Melatonin, made by the pineal
gland, is a master hormone controlling the entire energy system.
Quicker Healing The medical community has known for years that pulsed biomagnetic therapy promotes the
healing process, particularly of bone fractures. For over 40 years, many doctors have used pulsed biomagnetic therapy to treat
fractures and have had a high rate of success. Several magnetic instruments have already been FDA-approved and sanctioned
for both safety and therapeutic implications.
The success of this therapy is attributed, in part, to its facilitating the migration
of calcium ions and osteoblasts to heal broken bones in less than the usual time. In addition, the migration of calcium occurs
away from joints to reduce painful arthritic joint inflammation. The end result is the noninvasive promotion of natural healing,
without the use of unnatural chemicals and drugs. Adequate magnetic energy also softens or eliminates scar tissue formed during
the healing process.
Some doctors put magnets into the dressings over fractures. In fact, one veterinarian
I know, who broke his ankle after falling from a horse, reported following this strategy on himself.
Increased Athletic Endurance and Performance For years, magnetic therapy has been used around the world on race horses to heal injuries
and enhance performance. Doug Hannum, owner of the Equine Therapy Center in Camden, South Carolina, employs magnetic blankets
along with other natural healing modalities on animals, and professional riders, such as five-time Olympian Bruce Davidson
and world championship rider Dorothy Trapp, ship their steeds to Hannum for therapy.
Stunning successes with animals have prompted professional athletes to use magnets.
The Russians may have been the first in recent athletic history to have adapted magnetic therapy to foster greater athletic
strength and achievement. Today, many notable American athletes embrace this technology as well. Denver Bronco linebacker
Bill Romanowski revitalized his aching body by sleeping on a magnetic mattress pad. Yankee pitcher Irabu plays with dozens
of magnets stuck to his body. Top golfer Jim Colbert endorses magnets. And professional football player Steve Atwinter, a
seven-time pro-bowler, says, "I am not waiting for scientists to bless it. I only know it works." Even high schools are turning
to magnetic therapy to improve athletic performance.
Although the effect of increased endurance and performance is known, the cause
is not definitively understood. It is felt that magnetic energy warms up the muscles and joints so that performance is increased.
At least as important, serious injuries are reduced. In addition, it is known that magnetic energy increases blood flow to
the muscles, thereby increasing strength at these work sites.
In addition to its general benefits, biomagnetic therapy may help a variety of
specific conditions. This is not to say that magnets will cure absolutely, irreversibly, and indefinitely. How much good they
do varies from person to person and depends upon such factors as the depth of the problem, how long the condition has been
in existence, and how strong the magnet is.
Also, when using magnets for chronic longstanding conditions, where the tissues
have not been getting adequate blood flow, you may at first get an exacerbation of symptoms. Some people call this a healing
crisis. The discomfort usually passes in 24 to 48 hours. In the meantime, one may wish to take some Tylenol, aspirin, or similar
pain-relieving medication to help with the discomfort until the body starts to recover its circulation. One alternative is
to decrease the length of time the magnet is worn in the beginning and to gradually increase the time.
When using magnets for healing purposes, the strength should generally be between
100 and 500 gauss. Most treatments employ static magnets. However, when treating fractures, either static or pulsed electromagnets
can be useful. Here are some conditions for which magnets can be helpful.
Aging Magnets activate life-promoting enzymatic activity which, in turn, encourages normal cell division.
This creates a healthier organism and may then slow down the aging process. Several studies on animals show magnetic therapy
to increase lifespan. In order to balance the energy of the organs and glands throughout the body, it has been suggested that
one apply magnetic fields to the whole body. Sleeping on a magnetic bed is an excellent way to accomplish this. Drinking magnetized
water is another good habit to get into. Additionally, injured or weak areas of the body can be strengthened by applying magnets
to these specific sites.
Amputations Many amputees suffer from a phenomenon called phantom pain; i.e., they feel pain in a limb that
was removed. Many of these patients have vascular problems. Research shows that in many, magnets can improve the flow of blood
in the stump and cause phantom pain to go away.
Appendicitis A northern or bipolar magnet can be placed over the affected area. In advanced infections,
however, you should not hesitate to call a doctor, as this is an emergency situation.
Arthritis Magnetic therapy may be one of the most effective methods for achieving relief from arthritis, according
to a recent study published in the "Journal of Rheumatology" (November 1997, p. 1200). Placing the north pole of a magnet
over an inflamed area on a regular basis may be a key factor in improvement, especially for arthritis in the hands and feet.
Magnetic therapy may help reduce bone and tissue degeneration.
Asthma and Bronchitis Wearing a strong neodymium magnet over the chest to cover the bronchial tubes and at an equal
level on the back may help these conditions. In addition, sleeping on a magnetic mattress pad can be beneficial. It may take
several days before breathing returns to normal, and magnets can be worn continuously during that time.
Scientific evidence supports the use of magnets in bronchitis, in both adults and
children. In his clinical practice, Dr. William Pawluk reported success after a patient of his, who suffered from chronic
bronchitis after having been poisoned by mustard gas, used magnet therapy. The use of this treatment resulted in a greater
ease of breathing.
Breast Fissures Breast fissures are skin wounds that occur in women who are breastfeeding. Placing magnets over
the wounded skin can help the fissure heal more quickly.
Burns Magnets can help speed up the healing of all but the most serious burns. They are good to keep around
the kitchen for burns received after touching a hot stove or picking up something that is scalding. Magnets should be placed
over the site of injury. For slightly more serious burns, the use of magnets may help reduce the need for analgesics to control
Cancer Cells depolarize before becoming metastatic, and so one can speculate on how this approach may have
been successful in those clinical cases that have responded to magnet therapy. When using magnets for cancer, remember the
following rules of thumb: The magnetic pole used must be negative. The field should be larger than the primary lesion and
the gauss greater than 25. Success rate increases if both the gauss and duration are increased. A minimal duration of 20 hours
per day for no less than three months is required in most cases. The therapeutic effect is, in part, a result of the negative
pole producing alkaline hyperoxia (abundance of oxygen). Cancer cells form their energy by making ATP in an acid anaerobic
environment, which is termed acid hypoxia.
Russian reports indicate that using magnetic therapy along with chemotherapy increases
success in the treatment of brain tumors. Patients given magnetic therapy were less sick than patients who did not receive
it, and they recovered more quickly. They also had fewer problems with their adrenal glands, which chemotherapy can sometimes
Since the amount of information available on magnetic therapy with cancer is so
limited, and since cancer is such a serious condition, one should never consider magnets as a sole therapy.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Magnets can be applied to the front and back of the wrist to help this hard-to-heal condition.
While the symptoms can be controlled with the help of magnets, one should not expect the condition to be automatically cured.
Cervicitis The Russians have designed magnets for intravaginal use to alleviate chronic cervicitis. They are
placed in the vagina, next to the cervix. While this method may be useful for chronic cervicitis, it probably should not be
used for acute infections, such as yeast infections.
Circulatory Problems One can place magnetic strips along the forearm and sleep on a magnetic pad at night.
Depression When magnets are placed over the head, they can help lift one's mood and promote relaxation.
Dermatitis As magnets decrease swelling of any kind, they can be placed over any area of inflamed, red, itchy
skin with favorable results.
Ear Pain Magnets can be placed over the painful site. Medical advice should also be sought, though,
particularly for children.
Endometriosis This painful condition causes little blood spots inside the pelvis and is characterized
by tissue irritation, inflammation, and pain. Women with infertility problems often suffer from this. Benefit can be realized
through magnetic therapy, although it might take several months. In one study, good results were seen when 250-gauss magnets
were placed over the lower abdomen for six to 12 hours.
Fibromyalgia One should sleep on a magnetic mattress pad and use a magnetic pillow. Magnets can also
be placed over painful areas during the day.
Foot and Leg Problems Magnetic insoles will increase circulation and help conditions such as numbness,
burning, aches, restlessness, and leg cramps. In addition, one should sleep on a magnetic mattress pad.
Head Injuries Head injuries, even mild ones, can leave people with chronic, debilitating problems,
many of which show up years later as headaches, memory disorders, chronic fatigue syndrome, eye problems, irritability, or
other symptoms. Magnets placed around the head and neck can correct the electrical imbalance precipitated by the injury.
Heart Disease A neodymium magnet worn over the heart may assist the body in healing itself, and may,
in time, allow one to lessen or discontinue medications. Of course, one should always follow a physician's advice.
Some of the effects of magnets on circulatory function are greater blood vessel
dilation and increased oxygenation of tissues. Biomagnetic therapy may also improve vascular resistance and decrease the stickiness
of blood platelets. People with a peripheral vascular disorder and arteriosclerosis may therefore benefit from magnetic therapy.
Biomagnetic therapy may also undo blockages throughout the body, such as in the vessels of the lower extremities, the arteries
in the neck, and the blood vessels in the hands and arms. By opening up a blockage in the heart, magnets may help prevent
or improve ischemic heart disease, angina, and heart attacks.
Muscle Spasms One of the major actions of magnets is to decrease spasms in muscles. If you pull a back
muscle or you're under a lot of stress, those muscles may tighten up. Placing small round magnets or little block magnets
over those areas can make a significant difference.
Dr. Pawluk* reports additional relief when acupuncture meridians are stimulated
with magnets: "In some patients, myself included, I've placed a magnetic pad over the sacral area because it hits the bladder
meridian going up the back. The bladder meridian controls the energy flowing through the muscles, all the way up and down
the back, including, to some extent, the shoulders. If you increase the energy flow along the bladder area, it will help a
muscle problem or tension up into the shoulders."
Muscle Strains and Sprains and Joint Pain Dr. Pawluk* reports success after applying a magnet over the site of a torn muscle:
"While playing with the family dog, I tore a muscle in my calf. It was very painful. I covered the area with a large magnetic
pad, one that was probably 8 x 10 inches wide. And I wrapped an Ace bandage around that. I wore that for three days. It made
a significant improvement in the pain and discomfort and reduced the bruising around the tissues."
Local applications are appropriate for these types of problems. Wear the magnet
for several hours, and then take a break from it. Either wear the magnet all day and take it off during the night or vice
versa. The same rule applies to joint pain. A magnet can be taped over the joint for a set period of time. Additional benefit
can be derived if magnets are placed over corresponding acupuncture points.
Inexpensive Radio Shack magnets can be very effective when worn over the site of
a local strain or sprain.
Neuritis The Russians performed a study of 39 neuritis patients on medication alone, and an equal number on
medicine plus magnetic treatments. Magnets were placed along the spine, even though the neuropathy may have been experienced
in the arms. The assumption was that some of the information processing originated in the spine. Therefore, treating the spine
would be reflected in improvement in the arms. The experiment found a great degree of improvement in both groups, but particularly
in the group receiving medication plus magnetic treatment. Pain was reduced and nerve reflexes improved.
Post-Polio Syndrome Recently, a study was performed examining the effect of bipolar magnets on post-polio
syndrome, a condition characterized by muscle tenderness and pain in patients who have had polio. The condition occurs years
after the original damage from the polio virus. Application of magnets to these tender, painful spots was shown to alleviate
pain in this double-blind placebo-controlled study, the results of which were published in the November 1997 issue of the
"Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation".
Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnets act as an anti-inflammatory, and therefore help some chronic inflammatory
conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Surgery Some studies have shown that using magnets for 24 to 48 hours before surgery, over the site
where the incision will be made, results in better post-operative recovery. Additionally, wearing magnets over a wound after
the sutures have been put in can also speed up healing.
Length of Exposure
In many studies using magnets, patients experience favorable results with intermittent
use as opposed to continual wear. In other research and clinical experience, conditions are alleviated when magnets are worn
full-time. This raises questions for further research: Should magnets be worn all the time or should they be worn for certain
intervals? Should the length of time they are worn vary from condition to condition or person to person?
Dr. Pawluk* asserts that research shows that if magnets are worn all the time,
the body may adapt to the field and establish a new level of homeostasis. This can be compared, Pawluk explains, to walking
into a room that has the scent of flowers. After one is there awhile, the smell becomes imperceptible. The body may, therefore,
need a periodic time-off from magnets.
WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS
In the twenty-first century, medicine will change from a field dominated
by chemistry and surgery to one that promotes the body's own healing ability, and biomagnetic therapy will surely play a big
part in this shift. At present, while magnetism's ability to alleviate a variety of conditions is well-documented, we do not
completely understand how this happens. So more basic research is needed. We need, too, to provide greater knowledge about
how to manipulate magnets for the best effects. As we increase both our scientific and clinical understanding, skeptics in
the medical community will be won over to this vitally important healing modality.
A burgeoning field of inquiry involves methods of slowing the aging process. Anti-aging
research to date has focused on medicinal herbs, hormones, and nutrients that enhance health but do not necessarily lengthen
the genetically determined lifespan. A popular belief has been that each cell has a figurative biological clock that predetermines
senescence and maximum lifespan. For years, scientists have tried to identify the exact nature of this clock, and recently,
they seem to have done so. It seems that each time a normal cell divides it loses small portions of the ends of its chromosomes,
which are regions called telomeres. When telomeres are shortened to a certain critical length, the cell can no longer divide.
This results in the cell growing old and eventually dying.
Part of this divisional activity requires bonding of proteins to each other through
a process known as hydrogen bonding. It is known that hydrogen bonds are influenced by magnetic fields, and there is a possibility
that magnetic fields can be used to affect hydrogen bonding in a way that will reset the biological clock.
Another factor in aging is a decrease in the production of the hormone DHEA. It
is known that magnetic energy can influence hormone production from the pineal gland. It will be interesting to determine
if this therapy can influence the production of DHEA, with a resultant slowing of the aging process.®PG¯
*Dr. William Pawluk can be reached at:
William Pawluk, MD
P.O. Box 366
325 Centerton Road
Rancocas, NJ 08073
Dr. Pawluk's Book on Magnetic Therapy:
Magnetic Therapy in Eastern Europe: Review of 30 Years of Research
J. Jerabek & William Pawluk, MD
Where to Get Magnetic Products
Albert Roy Davis Research Labs
American Health Service
694 S. Waukegan Rd., Dept. F
Lake Forest, IL 60045
232 NE Lincoln St., Suite G
Hillsboro, OR 97124
Attn.: Larry Molnar
P.O. Box 223
Bowie, AZ 85605
871 Thrall Avenue
Suffield, CT 06078
Breakthrough Media, Inc
5065 SW 153rd Avenue
Beaverton, OR 97007
Dennis & Delores Mosher
P.O. Box 106
Dr. William or Katherine Philpott
or Len or Joyce Lothrup
SE 29th St.
Choctaw, OK 73020
His Way Magnetic Health Products
Route 30 Mall
Clementon, NJ 08021
P.O. Box 68127
Virginia Beach, VA 23471
P.O. Box 827
(multilevel marketing company)
One Executive Drive
LHASA Medical, Inc.
539 Accord Station
Accord, MA 02018-0539
P.O. Box 27106
Canada N5X 3X5
4926 Indian Springs Ct.
Plant City, FL 33565
Dr. Dean Bonlie
#107, 5421 11th St N.E.
T2E 6M4 Canada
Magnetic Health Products
5 Burns Street
Byron Bay, 2481 UK
Magnetic Therapeutic Technologies, Inc.
1915 Peters Road, Suite 308
Irving, Texas 75061
TOLL FREE # 800-371-1113
web site: www.mplusmagnet.com
Magnetic Wellness Centers
9711 Montgomery Rd.
Cincinattti, OH 45242
PO Box 124
Eaton, OH 45320
William or Leane Roffey-Orlando
999 E. Basse Rd., Suite
San Antonio, TX 78209
(multilevel marketing company)
10866 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 250
Angeles, CA 90024
Norso Biomagnetics, Inc.
4105 Starboard Court
Raleigh, NC 27613
Oriental Medical Supplies, Inc.
1950 Washington Street
Braintree, MA 02184
Planetary Herbal Products
Santa Cruz, CA 95061
P.O. Box 788
Roy, WA 98580
Dr. Buryl Payne
4264 Topsail Ct.
Soquel, CA 95073
Magnet Relief Products
2602 South Dixie Highway, Suite
West Palm Beach, FL 33401
R.D.G. Technologies, Inc
913 9th Terrace
Palm Beach Gardens,
Walter C. Rawls (for information and books)
P.O. Box 655
Green Cove Springs,
4036 W. Grand Blanc Road #800
Swartz Creek, MI 48472
4957 Bittrich-Antler Road
Dear Park, WA 99006
Dr. John Zimmerman
The Anatomy of Biomagnetism
2490 W. Moana Ln.
Reno, NV 89509
Zimmerman provides a comprehensive information package on over two dozen companies selling therapeutic magnetic products,
ranging from the two largest, Nikken and Japan Life, all the way to mom-and-pop operations that sell far less. Some that he
recommends highly are Nikken, Magnet Therapy, Inc. (also called Tectonics), and Magnet Relief. The latter is particularly
noteworthy for its well-designed magnetic pads. His packet costs $10, which helps to provide support for the Bio-Electro-Magnetics
Institute to carry on its research.)
By Albert Roy Davis, Ph.D
The Art of Magnetic Healing
Biomagnetic Handbook: A Guide to Medical Magnets: The Energy of Tomorrow
William H. Philpott, M.D. and Sharon Taplin
The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and The Foundation of Life
By Robert O.
Becker, M.D., and Gary Seldon
The Body Magnetic
By Dr. Buryl Payne
The Book of Magnetic Healing & Treatments
By Noel C. Norris
The Cancer Cure that Worked: Fifty Years of Suppression
By Barry Lynes with
By Robert O. Becker
Discovery of Magnetic Health: A Health Care Alternative
By George J. Washnis
and Richard Z. Hircak
The Electric Wilderness
By Andrew Marino and Joel Ray
Electromagnetic Pollution Solution
By Glen Swartout
Getting Started in Magnetic Healing
By Dr. Buryl Payne
By Heinz Schiegl
By Holger Hannemann
Magnetic Therapy in Eastern Europe: Review of 30 Years of Research
J. Jerabek & William Pawluk, MD
The Magnetic Blueprint of Life
By Albert Roy Davis and Walter C. Rawls, Jr.
The Magnetic Effect
By Albert Roy Davis and Walter C. Rawls, Jr.
Magnetic Field Therapy Handbook
By R. Allen Walls
Magnet Therapy: Balancing Your Body's Energy Flow for Self-Healing
Magnet Therapy Theory and Practice
By Dr. Neville S. Bengali
Magnetic/Oxygen Answer for Infection and Toxicity
By William H. Philpott, M.D.
Magnetism and its Effect on the Living System
By Albert Roy Davis and Walter
C. Rawls, Jr.
Medical Magnets: Nature's Healing Energy
By Barbara Gordon
The Secret of Life: Cosmic Rays and Radiations of Living Beings
By Georges Lakhovsky
Terminal Shock: The Health Hazards of Video Display Terminals
By Bob Dematto
Your Complete Guide to TENS
By Barbara Gordon
Vibrational Medicine: New Choices for Healing Ourselves
By Richard Gerber
The Zapping of America: Microwaves, Their Deadly Risk, and the Coverup
PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC STUDIES
Click the number at the end of each paragraph in this section to
see the relevant endnote.
Following are descriptions of recent studies, published in peer-reviewed scientific
journals, on the impact of treatment with magnetic fields on a variety of conditions.
This article reports on two Alzheimer's
patients who experienced significant improvement in visual memory and drawing performance following the external application
of electromagnetic fields ranging from 5 to 8 Hz. Improvements were also seen in other cognitive functions, including spatial
orientation, mood, short-term memory, and social interactions.
Noting that the disorganization of circadian rhythm (the daily biological clock)
may be causally related to memory deterioration in old age and possibly to Alzheimer's disease, this article argues that the
use of magnetic fields could lead to memory improvement among the elderly by means of resynchronization, or resetting, of
the circadian rhythms.2
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease)3
article reports on three patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who experienced beneficial effects following treatment
consisting of three sessions per week of pulsed magnetic fields administered via a Magnobiopulse apparatus. Patients received
upwards of 75 total sessions prior to achieving maximum recovery.
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that treatment with two 30-minute sessions of noninvasive
pulsed radiofrequency therapy is effective in significantly decreasing the time required for edema reduction in patients suffering
from lateral ankle sprains.4
This study found that 3 hours of exposure
to a 50-Hz magnetic field significantly inhibited experimentally induced inflammation and suppressed arthritis in rats.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electrical
fields administered over a period of 4 weeks in the treatment of arthritis of the hand. Results showed significant clinical
improvement in patients receiving the therapy relative to controls.7
In this general review article on the treatment of patients with psoriatic arthritis
with magnetic fields, the authors state that an alternating low-frequency magnetic field (30-40 mT) from such generators as
"Polius-1" and "Polius-101" improves the clinical state of afflicted joints. Such treatments are normally carried out for
30 minutes per day over a period of 15 to 20 days.8
This study examined the effects of magnetolaser therapy either itself or in combination
with conventional drugs in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Magnetolaser therapy involved the use of an AMLT-01
device and consisted of 6-minute exposures daily over a total of 14 days. Results showed a marked improvement following the
first 3 days of magnetolaser therapy, with the strongest positive effects experienced by patients characterized as suffering
from mild to moderate levels of the disease. At the end of the magnetolaser therapy course, 90 percent of patients showed
This study examined the effects of low-frequency magnetic fields (from a "Polius-1"
device) in patients 7 to 14 years old suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment consisted of 10 daily exposures
of 10 to 12 minutes each. Results showed beneficial effects in 58, 76, and 37 percent of patients in each of three experimental
This study examined the effects of low-frequency and constant magnetic fields in
patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthrosis. Low-frequency magnetic fields were shown to produce beneficial
effects in patients with both stage I and II rheumatoid arthritis and with osteoarthrosis deformans, especially with respect
to the wrists, knees, and ankles.11
Blepharitis (infection of the eyelid)12
Results of this
study indicated that the use of an alternating magnetic field in conjunction with a magnetic ointment containing reduced iron
powder had beneficial effects in patients with chronic blepharitis.
This study examined the effects of
bone grafting and pulsed electromagnetic fields on a group of 83 adults with ununited fractures. Results showed a successful
healing rate of 87 percent in the 38 patients originally treated with bone grafts and PEMF for ununited fractures with wide
gaps, synovial pseudarthrosis, and malalignment. A healing rate of 93 percent was shown among the 45 patients who had initially
been unsuccessfully treated with PEMF alone and had bone-grafting and were re-treated with pulsing electromagnetic fields.14
This study examined the effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields on 125 patients
suffering from ununited fractures of the tibial diaphysis. Results showed a healing rate of 87 percent.15
Results of this study showed treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields resulted
in an overall success rate of at least 75 percent in patients suffering from tibial lesions.16
This review article makes the following observations with respect to the use of
pulsed electromagnetic fields in treating ununited fractures, failed arthrodeses, and congenital pseudarthroses. The treatment
has been shown to be more than 90 percent effective in adult patients. In cases where union does not occur with PEMFs alone
after approximately four months, PEMF treatment coupled with fresh bone grafts ensures a maximum failure rate of only 1 to
1.5 percent. For those with delayed union three to four months following fracture, PEMFs appear to be more successful than
in patients treated with other conservative methods. For more serious conditions, including infected nonunions, multiple surgical
failures, long-standing atrophic lesions, failed knee arthrodeses after removal of infected prostheses, and congenital pseudarthroses,
PEMF treatment has exhibited success in most patients.17
Results of this study found that 35 of 44 nonunited scaphoid fractures 6 months
or older healed in a mean time of 4.3 months during pulsed electromagnetic field treatment using external coils and a thumb
spica cast. 18
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic
fields in femoral neck fracture patients undergoing conventional therapy. PEMF treatment was started within two weeks of fracture,
and patients were instructed to make use of the electromagnetic device for 8 hours per day over a 90-day period. Results showed
beneficial effects relative to controls after 18 months of follow-up.19
This review article on pulsing electromagnetic fields in the treatment of bone
fracture observes that the surgically noninvasive outpatient method approved by the FDA in 1979 produced confirmed end results
in 1007 ununited fractures and 71 failed arthrodeses, with an overall success rate at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center
of 81 percent; an international success rate of 79 percent, and a success rate with other patients in the U.S. of 76 percent.22
Results of this double-blind study showed significant healing effects of low-frequency
pulsing electromagnetic fields in patients treated with femoral intertrochanteric osteotomy for hip degenerative arthritis.25
In this study, 147 patients with fractures of the tibia, femur, and humerus who
had failed to benefit from surgery received treatment with external skeletal fixation in situ and pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Results indicated an overall success rate of 73 percent. Femur union was seen in 81 percent and tibia union in 75 percent.26
This study examined the effects of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields
(1-1000 Hz, 4 gauss) on new bone fractures of female patients. Results led the authors to suggest that EMF treatment accelerates
the early stages of fracture healing.27
This study examined the preventive effects of low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic
fields against delayed union in rat fibular osteotomies and diaphyseal tibia fractures in humans. Results indicated such treatment
modulated and accelerated fracture union in both groups.29
This article discusses the cases of two children with bone malunion following lengthening
of congenitally shortened lower legs. Pulsed sinusoidal magnetic field treatment was beneficial for both patients.30
Results of this study showed that 13 of 15 cases of long-bone nonunion treated
with pulsed electromagnetic fields in combination with Denham external fixator united within several months.31
Results of this study found electromagnetic field stimulation to be an effective
treatment for nonunion among a group of 37 French patients.32
Results of this study found treatment induced pulsing to be beneficial in patients
suffering from nonunions unresponsive to surgery.33
In this interview with Dr. C. Andrew L. Bassett, a physician researching the use
of pulsed electromagnetic fields for the past 30 years at Columbia University's Orthopedic Research Lab, Dr. Bassett notes
that approximately 10,000 of the 12,000-plus orthopedic surgeons in the U.S. have used pulsed electromagnetic fields on at
least one patient. Many such surgeons have incorporated the therapy on a more regular basis. He estimates that a total of
at least 65,000 patients nationwide have received the treatment, with a probable success rate of between 80 and 90 percent.
Use of the treatment has been primarily in patients suffering from nonunited fractures, fusion failures, and pseudoarthrosis.34
Results of this study showed pulsed electromagnetic fields to have beneficial healing
effects in patients suffering from difficult to treat and surgically resistant bone nonunions.35
This review article notes that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields began in
1974, and that 250,000 nonunion patients have received the treatment since. The author argues that success rates are comparable
to those of bone grafting, and that PEMF treatment is more cost-effective and free of side effects. The FDA approved PEMF
use in 1982, although it remains widely unused due to physician misunderstanding and lack of knowledge concerning the treatment.36
This 7-year study examined data on more than 11,000 cases of nonunions treated
with pulsed electromagnetic fields for up to 10 to 12 hours per day. Results indicated an overall success rate of 75 percent.37
This study examined the effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields (1-1000
Hz) on middle-aged female patients suffering from fresh radius fractures. Results showed significant increases in scintimetric
activity surrounding the fracture area after two weeks of EMF treatment relative to controls.38
This study examined the effects of constant magnetic fields in patients suffering
from fractures. Results showed that magnetic exposure reduced pain and the onset of edema shortly after trauma. Where edema
was already present, the treatment exhibited marked anti-inflammatory effects. The strongest beneficial effects occurred in
patients suffering from fractures of the ankle joints.39
Results of this study found that 10 hours per day of electromagnetic stimulation
(1.0-1.5 mV) produced complete union in 23 of 26 patients receiving the treatment for nonjoined fractures.40
This review article looks at the history of pulsed electromagnetic fields as a
means of bone repair. The author argues that success rates have been either superior or equivalent to those of surgery, with
PEMF free of side effects and risk.41
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled
study indicated that both low-frequency electromagnetic field treatment and treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields proved
effective in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis when coupled with standard drug therapies. Magnetic field treatment
consisted of a total of 15 15-20-minute daily exposures.
Results of this study found that prolonged
exposure to a 7-tesla uniform static magnetic field for a period of 64 hours inhibited growth of three human tumor cell lines
This study examined the effects of a rotational magnetic field on a group of 51
breast cancer patients. Results showed a significant positive response in 27 of them.44
Results of this study indicated that exposure to a rotational magnetic field inhibited
Walker's carcinoma tumor growth as much as 90 percent in some cases.45
Results of this study indicated that pulsed magnetic field stimulation increased
the incorporation of antitumor agents into cells, and thus increased antitumor activity shifting the cell cycle to a proliferative
from a nonproliferative phase.46
Results of this study found that 20-30 sessions of magnetotherapy administered
preoperatively exhibited antitumor effects in patients suffering from lung cancer.47
This study examined the effects of microwave resonance therapy (MRT) in patients
suffering from various forms of cancer. Results showed that MRT treatment prior to surgery reduced the spread of cancer-associated
conditions and reduced the risk associated with surgery in 87 percent of patients. MRT applied postoperatively had beneficial
effects in 68 percent.50
Results of this study proved that the combination of weak pulsed electromagnetic
fields with antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in the treatment of patients suffering from tongue cancer, improving
speech, pain control, and tolerance to chemotherapy.51
Results of this controlled study indicated that treatment with a constant magnetic
field significantly improved long-term (3-year) survival time in patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer of the throat.
Constant magnetic field therapy consisted of the application of 300 mT for 30 minutes to tumor and metastasizing regions immediately
prior to each irradiation.52
Results of this Russian study indicated that the use of whole body eddy magnetic
fields, coupled with more conventional cancer therapies (including magnetotherapy) is effective in the treatment of patients
suffering from a variety of different malignancies.53
This article reports on the case of a 48-year-old-woman with breast cancer who
was treated successfully with magnetotherapy. Infiltration showed a marked decrease following 30 whole body exposures to an
eddy magnetic field for 60 minutes. One metastatic node disappeared while the size of others was reduced following 60 such
exposures. A total regression of tumor and metastases was seen following the completion of a course of 110 exposures.54
This study examined the effects of whole body magnetic fields (16.5-35 G, 50-165
Hz) on patients suffering from different forms of cancer. Treatment consisted of 15 cycles, each 1-20 minutes in duration,
and was coupled with more traditional cancer therapies. Results showed that the magnetotherapy had overall beneficial effects,
particularly with respect to improved immune status and postoperative recovery.55
Cardiovascular/Coronary Heart Disease
Results of this
study found that the addition of magnetotherapy to the treatment of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease and osteochondrosis
led to clinical improvements.57
Results of this study involving 23 parasystolic children found that low-frequency
magnetic field exposure improved humoral and cellular processes involved in the regulation of cardiac rhythm.58
The authors of this study report on their development of a polymagnetic system
called Avrora-MK-01 used to administer impulse magnetic fields to diseases of the leg vessels. Results indicated positive
effects on peripheral capillaries in 75-82 percent of patients receiving the treatment at a pre-gangrene stage.59
Results of this study showed exposure to low-frequency alternating magnetic fields
had beneficial effects in children with primary arterial hypertension, as seen in the attenuation of sympathetic and vagotonic
This study demonstrated that traveling pulsed magnetic field and magnetic laser
treatment produced beneficial effects in patients suffering from the initial stages of essential hypertension.61
In this article, the authors propose a new approach to treating atherosclerosis
through the alteration of biophysical properties both intracellularly and extracellularly. Citing their own preliminary data,
they suggest atherosclerotic lesions might be selectively resolved without harming normal blood vessels allowing the lesions
to take up the magnetically excitable submicron particles and then applying an external alternating electromagnetic field.62
This study examined the effects of constant MKM2-1 magnets on essential hypertension
patients. Results indicated the treatment decreased arterial pressure in stage II patients, with magnetotherapy being shown
to produce beneficial effects on the central hemodynamics and microcirculation.63
Results from several recent studies conducted the author are reviewed. Conclusions
are that pulsed electromagnetic fields exhibit protective effects against necrosis from acute ischemia in rats, cerebral infarcts
in rabbits, and myocardium infarcts in rats.64
This study examined the effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation
(EHF EMR) in 93 patients suffering ischemic heart disease. EHF treatment consisted of 10 to 15 exposures of the lower end
of the sternum from a 'Yav'-1-7,1 device. Treatment was performed five times weekly for a total of 30 minutes per day, with
drug therapy being maintained during this period. Positive results tended to occur after 5 to 6 treatment sessions, with a
good or satisfactory response being reported in 82 of 93 patients, and lasting as long as 11 months after hospital release.65
This review article concerning the clinical application of electromagnetic fields
notes that microwave therapy has been shown to improve local circulation and vascular tone, increase the volume of functional
capillaries, lower hypertension, stimulate protein and carbohydrate metabolism, stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system, produce
anti-inflammatory effects, and improve digestive organ function. Studies have shown decimeter wave therapy capable of stimulating
the secretory function of the stomach, as well as blood circulation, respiratory function, and the immune system. Side effects
have been reported in both human and animal studies.67
In this study, 30 myocardial infarction patients received millimeter-wave (MW)
therapy in the form of 10 exposures of 30 minutes per day, with a 2-day interruption after the fifth exposure. Patients continued
conventional drug treatment during the MW therapy period. Better results were seen in those patients exposed to the MW therapy
relative to an equal number of patients receiving conventional treatment only.68
This study examined the effects of millimeter wave therapy in approximately 450
patients suffering from a variety of diseases, including those of the musculoskeletal, digestive, pulmonary, and nervous systems.
Treatment consisted of 25-30 minutes per day using the "Porog-1" apparatus and generally lasted for a period of up to 10 days.
Results showed positive effects in over 87 percent of the patients.69
Results of this study found that the use of magnetophore therapy (constant magnets
applied to adrenal regions 10 hours per day for 15 days) significantly improved symptoms associated with hypertension in about
35 percent of patients studied, with mild improvement seen in 30 percent, and no improvement in 35 percent. Patients receiving
decimeter-band waves (460 MHz, field intensity of 35-45 W, for 10-15 minutes per day for a total of 15 days) experienced similar
Results of this placebo-controlled study demonstrated a 76-percent effectiveness
rate for running impulse magnetic field therapy in a group of arterial hypertensive patients. Treatment consisted of two 25-minute
exposures per day over a period of 10-20 total exposures, at frequencies of 10 or 100 Hz and magnetic field intensity of 3
or 10 mT.71
This study examined the efficacy of the reinfusion of autologous blood following
magnetic field exposure in hypertensive patients. Positive effects were found in 92 percent of patients receiving the treatment.73
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of magnetotherapy
in patients suffering from first- or second-stage hypertension. A magnetic field of 50 Hz, 15-25 mT was applied to acupuncture
points He-Gu and Shen'-Men for 15-20 seconds per day for a total of 9-10 days. Results: The treatment improved headaches in
88 percent of patients, dizziness in 89 percent, and irritability in 88 percent. In general, 95 percent of hypertensive patients
experienced beneficial effects from the treatment, and the morbidity rate decreased twofold following one course extended
over a period of 5-6 months.74
This placebo-controlled study examined the effects of constant and of running magnetic
fields in patients suffering from stage II hypertension. Results found that constant magnetic fields exhibited benefits in
68 percent of patients treated, and running magnetic fields were helpful in 78 percent. Only 30 percent of controls showed
improvement. Constant magnetic field treatment consisted of constant magnets applied to the inner side of the wrist on each
hand for 35-40 minutes daily over a period of 7-10 days. Running magnetic field treatment involved the use of a "Alimp-1"
apparatus for 20 minutes per day for a total of 12-15 days.76
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that magnetotherapy was effective
in the treatment of symptoms associated with stage II hypertension, such as headache, dizziness, and cardiodynia. The therapy
consisted of permanent circular magnets (16 mT) applied to the inner forearm for 30-45 minutes per day over a period of 10
This controlled study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in patients suffering
from neurocirculatory hypotension (low blood pressure) or hypertension (high blood pressure). Treatment consisted of a running
pulsed magnetic field generated an "ALIMP" device (0.5 mT, 300 Hz) administered for 20 minutes per day over a course of 10
days. Patients suffering from hypotension did not benefit significantly from the magnetotherapy. Hypertension patients, however,
showed a marked improvement with respect to symptoms including headache, chest pain, extremity numbness, abnormal systolic
and diastolic blood pressure, and work capacity.80
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that low-frequency, low-intensity
electrostatic fields (40-62 Hz) administered for 12-14 minutes per day helped normalize blood pressure in patients suffering
This study examined the effects of low-frequency alternating magnetic fields in
patients suffering from arteriosclerosis or osteoarthrosis deformans. Treatment involved 10-15 minute daily leg exposures
over a total of 15 days. Results showed the treatment to be effective in 80 percent of arteriosclerosis patients and 70 percent
of those with osteoarthrosis deformans.82
This study examined the effects of low-frequency magnetic fields (25 mT) in patients
suffering atherosclerotic encephalopathy. Treatment involved 10-15 minute daily exposures over a total of 10-15 applications.
Results showed clinical improvements with respect to chest pain, vertigo, headache, and other symptoms.83
Chronic Venous Insufficiency
This study examined the
effects of alternating magnetic fields (15-20 minutes per day over a period of 20 days) in patients suffering from chronic
venous insufficiency, varicose veins, and trophic shin ulcers. Results showed good effects in 236 of the 271 patients receiving
the treatment. Thirty-four patients reported satisfactory effects. Only one patient experienced no effects.85
This review article notes that magnetotherapy in a variety of forms has been successfully
used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and is a commonly used physical therapy for the condition.86
This study examined the effects of running impulse magnetic fields in patients
suffering from vessel obliteration diseases of the legs. Treatment consisted of 15-20 whole body exposures (0.5-5 mT, 1-2
Hz) lasting 15-20 minutes each. Results showed treatment led to a significant reduction in the number of patients experiencing
leg pain while at rest. Among patients previously unable to walk a 500-m distance, 52 percent were able to complete the distance
following treatment. Circulation improved in 75-82 percent of patients.87
This placebo-controlled study examined
the effects of micromagnets in the treatment of periodontal disease. Micromagnets were attached to the skin over areas of
inflammation for a period ranging from 1 to 8 days, with the number of magnets used at once varying from 1 to 6. The course
of treatment lasted as long as 4 weeks. Results indicated that patients receiving the micromagnet therapy experienced earlier
and more trouble-free recoveries following oral surgery, as well as less pain relative to controls.99
This controlled study examined the effects of adjunctive Diapulse electromagnetic
therapy on oral surgery recovery. Patients received the therapy once per day beginning between 3 to 5 days prior to oral surgery.
Therapy was maintained until the point of hospital release. Results found the therapy produced significant healing relative
to controls, who received conventional treatment only.100
This study found that patients suffering from various oral diseases experienced
more rapid healing when treated with both conventional therapies and 30 minutes per day of pulsed electromagnetic fields (5
mT, 30 Hz), as opposed to conventional therapies alone.101
This review article examined the literature
concerning the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Results showed the high-frequency,
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment to be an effective, side-effect free therapy for depression that may
hold promise for treating related psychiatric disorders as well.103
Noting that there is good reason to believe the pineal gland is a magnetosensitive
system and that application of magnetic fields in experimental animals has a similar effect to that of acute exposure to light
with respect to melatonin secretion, the authors propose that magnetic treatment could be a beneficial new therapy for winter
depression in humans.104
This review article notes that transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown
to elicit antidepressant effects, electically stimulating deep regions of the brain.105
In this theoretical paper, the author argues that deep, low-rate transcranial magnetic
stimulation can produce therapeutic effects equivalent to those of electroconvulsive therapy but without the dangerous side
This study examined the effects of millimeter wave (MW) therapy as a supplemental
treatment in patients suffering from various types of depression. MW therapy involved the use of a "Yav'-1" apparatus (5.6
mm wavelength, 53 GHz), and consisted of up to 60 minutes of exposure per day, 2 to 3 times per week, for a total of as many
as 15 exposures. Results showed that combined MW/conventional treatment produced a complete recovery in over 50 percent of
cases studied, a significant improvement in 41 percent, and some improvement in 8 percent. Recovery rates among controls (conventional
treatment only) were 4, 48, and 41 percent, respectively.108
Results of this study led researchers to conclude that patients suffering from
major depression experienced a significant reduction of depressive symptoms following treatment with transcranial magnetic
stimulation coupled with standard medication relative to patients taking the medicine. This was true after just three TMS
This study examined the effects of conventional
treatments combined with millimeter wave (MW) therapy (54- to 70-GHz frequency, 8-15 daily exposures of 15-30 minutes each)
on patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Results indicated that the MW therapy was well-tolerated all patients, with
the rash generally regressing after 7-8 exposures. Marked recovery was seen among 78 percent of patients receiving the combination
treatments. Two-year follow-up showed a 23-percent relapse rate among combination patients, compared to 54 percent among controls.110
In this study, 320 diabetics received impulsed
magnetic field treatment while 100 diabetics (controls) received conservative therapy alone. Results showed beneficial effects
with respect to vascular complications in 74 percent of the patients receiving magnetotherapy combined with conservative methods,
compared to a 28-percent effectiveness rate among controls.111
This study involving 72 diabetics with purulent wounds found that magnetic fields
aided healing significantly.113
Diseases of the Larynx
Results of this study found
that alternative magnetic field of sound frequency proved to be an effective treatment in patients suffering from acute inflammatory
diseases of the larynx.117
This study examined the effects
of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of 5-year-old children suffering from Duchenne-Erb disease. Children were exposed
to either UHF or DMW therapy for 8-12 minutes per day on alternating days over a period of approximately 10 days. Following
the electromagnetic fields course, children received mud applications on the collar area and injured extremity. Results showed
that treatment decreased contractures in shoulder and elbow joints, increased mobility and muscle strength, and improved general
function of the arm.118
This study found that a combined treatment
consisting of magnetic-infrared-laser therapy (10-15 min/day ever other day over a period of 10-14 exposures, then repeated
in 2-3 months) and conventional drug therapy proved highly effective in women suffering from endometriosis.119
Results of this study found that the
administration of constant magnetic field in combination with other treatment modalities led to significant beneficial effects
in patients suffering from acute endometritis following abortion.120
This article reports on the cases of three
patients with partial seizures who received treatment with external artificial magnetic fields of low intensity. Such treatment
led to a significant attenuation of seizure frequency over a 10-14-month period.121
Experimental results indicated that the administration of modulated electromagnetic
fields of 2-30 Hz suppressed epilepsy in rats.122
This review article cites one study in particular in which results showed that
pretreatment with 30 minutes of exposure to a 75-mT pole strength, DC-powered magnetic field significantly prevented experimentally
induced seizures in mice.123
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of 2-hour exposure
to weak magnetic fields (0.2-0.7 G, irregularly oscillating 0.026-0.067 Hz) produced 3 pairs of orthogonal Helmholtz coils
on pain perception in healthy subjects. Results showed that magnetic treatment significantly reduced the perception of pain.124
This article reports on the case of a severe epileptic who experienced a significant
lessening of behavior disturbances and seizure frequency following treatment with low-frequency, external artificial magnetic
Low-frequency, external artificial magnetic field treatment was shown to significantly
reduce seizures in four adult epileptic cases.126
Results of this study indicated that
treatment with decimeter-band electromagnetic fields improved motor function of the stomach and reduced dyspepsia and pain
in children suffering from chronic gastroduodenitis. Treatment made use of the "Romashka" apparatus (a cylinder applicator,
100 mm in diameter, power of 6-8 W) applied to the gastroduodenal region, and consisted of 6-12 minute exposures every other
day for a total of 8-12 exposures.129
This controlled study examined the effects of sinusoidally modulated currents (100
Hz) coupled with conventional therapy in children suffering from chronic gastroduodenitis. Children received 8-10 exposures
lasting between 6 and 10 minutes. Results showed that the treatment reduced inflammation in 72 percent of patients relative
to just a 45-percent rate among controls. About 77 percent of treatment patients experienced elimination of gastro-esophageal
and duodeno-gastral refluxes, compared to 29 percent of controls.130
Results of this study indicated that the optimal
frequency of pulsed magnetic fields ranges between 10.0 and 25.0 Hz in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions of
the locomotor apparatus, ischemia of the blood vessels of the lower extremities, dyspeptic syndrome, lactation mastitis, and
other diseases. Treatment proved best when the therapeutic cycle was repeated after a 2-3 month period.131
This article reviews the use of magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia. Noting that this
modality has been used for more than a decade, the author states that magnetotherapy has been shown to be effective in treating
rheumatic diseases, sinusitis, enuresis, and ischemic disorders of the lower extremities. Positive findings have also been
shown with respect to multiple sclerosis and degenerative diseases of the retina.132
This review article notes that pulse-type electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are the
most frequently used type of electromagnetic therapy. Another form is pulsed radio frequency; PRF therapy generally includes
daily sessions of 30-minute exposure and is primarily used in cases of pain and edema, with results being apparent quickly
when the therapy is effective. PEMF treatment is most successful when used in bone healing, with results occurring over a
longer period of time.133
This study examined the effects of electromagnetic fields administered over a period
of 10 days on 354 patients suffering from various orthopedic conditions. Results showed the effects to be positive, with the
greatest benefit experienced among patients with acute lesions.134
Noting that beneficial effects of low-energy, time-varying magnetic fields have
been shown since the early 1970s, this review article cites studies pointing to its success in the treatment of a wide range
of conditions. The best results for this modality obtained in the area of bone healing.135
This review article claims that over a quarter of a million patients worldwide
with chronically ununited fractures have experienced beneficial results from treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.
In addition, the author cites studies pointing to the treatment's efficacy with respect to other conditions such as nerve
regeneration, wound healing, graft behavior, diabetes, heart attack, and stroke.136
This review article notes that low-intensity millimeter waves have been used for
treating a wide variety of medical conditions in the former Soviet Union since 1977, with more than a million patients treated
and more than a thousand treatment centers in existence. This therapy has been approved for widespread use the Russian Ministry
of Health, and over 300 scientific publications have described its effects. A typical course of treatment involves 10-15 daily
exposures ranging from 15 to 60 minutes each.137
This study concluded that the use of millimeter wave (MW) therapy was effective
in the treatment of both children and adults suffering from a variety of orthopedic diseases, including osteochondrosis, arthrosis,
infantile cerebral paralysis, Perthes' disease, and inborn femur dislocation. MW therapy made use of the G4-142 apparatus
(55-65 GHz). Exposure was for 15-30 minutes in children or 30-60 minutes in adults over a period of 10-12 total exposures.138
This research examined the effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields
on patients suffering from a wide range of disorders, including musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, circulatory
diseases, traumatic disorders, gastroenterological problems, and stress-related morbidity. Treatment made use of the Rhumart
apparatus, which produced waveforms with peak amplitudes up to 30 G. Results, based on the patients' own subjective ratings,
indicated the treatment to be beneficial across most conditions, with the strongest effects seen in those suffering from musculoskeletal
and traumatic disorders.139
This review article summarizes findings presented at the Third Workshop on the
use of low-intensity millimeter waves in medicine, held in Zvenigorod, Moscow Region, Russia. Such findings pointed to the
efficacy of MW therapy with respect to alcoholism and its associated symptoms, gastric and duodenal ulcers, psoriasis, chronic
furunculosis, and cardiovascular diseases.140
This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy on patients suffering from a
variety of eye and brain vascular disorders. Treatment made use of the "Polius-1" apparatus (50 Hz), with most patients receiving
a course of 15-20 daily exposures. Results showed overall general improvements in 95 percent of patients with eye diseases.141
This review article notes that low-frequency electromagnetic therapy has been used
for a variety of purposes. Those specifically identified the author include cell growth promotion, pain reduction, improved
blood circulation, bone repair, increased wound healing, sedative effects, enhanced sleep, and arthritic relief.142
This review article notes that treatment with an "Infita" apparatus, used to deliver
low-frequency magnetic fields, has been shown to improve general hemodynamics and microcirculation in addition to exhibiting
anti-inflammatory, sedative, and analgesic effects in Olympic-level Russian athletes.143
This review article cites studies pointing to the efficacy of low-frequency magnetic
fields in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions, including burns, arthritis, fractures, arterial aneurysms, PMS, phantom
pain, tuberculosis, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, bronchial asthma, and ulcerated varicose veins, among others.144
This study examined the effects of extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (TAMMAT
device) in the treatment of a group of 650 patients suffering from a host of various diseases. Treatment consisted 15-25 minute
daily exposures 5 days per week over a total of 20-25 days. Most patients experienced improvements after 2-3 exposures. Marked
improvements were seen with respect to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immune-enhancing effects.145
This article reports on the efficacy of a Russian electromagnetic stimulation apparatus
termed "Cascade." The authors state that data from 508 patients suffering from various ailments who were treated with the
device indicate it to be anywhere from 75 to 100 percent effective. Examples of conditions in which the device was used include
stubborn fractures, post-traumatic contractures, crush syndrome, and Perthes' disease.146
This review article on the use of pulsed magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia points
to its efficacy across a variety of conditions, including joint problems, enuresis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and carpal
In this study, patients with primary open-angle
glaucoma with compensated intraocular pressure were administered magnetotherapy using an ATOS device with 33-mT magnetic field
induction. The procedure was administered to a patient in a sitting posture with a magnetic inductor held before the eye.
Sessions lasted 10 minutes and each course included 10 sessions. Following 4-5 months of therapy, results showed improved
vision acuity 0.16 diopters, on an average of 29 out of 30 eyes with vision acuity below 1.0.149
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study
examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on hair loss in men suffering from male pattern baldness. PEMF exposures
were administered to the head for 12 minutes and were given weekly or twice weekly over a period of 36 weeks. Results found
the PEMF treatment both prevented hair loss and promoted regrowth without side effects.151
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled
study demonstrated that the administration of a pulsed magnetic field for less than one hour to headache patients produced
significant beneficial effects, as shown subjective patient reports, as well as EEG activity.152
This article reports on the case of an acute migraine patient who was successfully
treated with external magnetic fields.153
This article examined the effects of millimeter wave therapy in the treatment of
107 patients suffering from headaches of varying causes. Treatment consisted of the Nao-Hu, Bai-Huei, and Hua-Chai acupuncture
points being exposed to 5.6- and 4.9-mm wavelengths via the use of "Yav'-1-5.6" or "Electronka-KVCh" devices, respectively.
Exposure lasted up to 60 minutes per day over a course of 10 days. All patients experienced positive results following 3-5
exposures. After one year, 48 percent of patients remained free of headaches, with a significant decrease in another 41 percent.154
This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (20 minutes per
day for 15 days) in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic headaches. Results indicated the treatment to be most
effective in patients suffering from tension headaches, with 88 percent of such patients reporting positive results. Beneficial
results were also experienced patients suffering from migraines (60 percent), cervical migraines (68 percent), and psychogenic
headaches (60 percent).155
In this study, 90 headache patients were treated with pulsating electromagnetic
fields via large coils to the body for 20 minutes per day for a total of 15 days. Results found the treatment to be either
excellent or good for those patients suffering from migraine, tension, and/or cervical headaches. Patients experiencing post-traumatic
or cluster headaches did not experience such benefits.156
Results of this study indicated that pulsating electromagnetic fields (12 Hz and
5 mT) were an effective prophylactic treatment for patients suffering from cervical and migraine headaches.157
This placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic
fields (2-5 Hz and flux densities of 3-4 mT) on patients suffering from migraine headaches. PEMFs were administered to the
head for 10-15 minutes per day over a period of 30 days. Results showed a mean improvement level of 66 percent in patients
receiving the treatment, compared to just 23 percent among controls.158
In this study, hemophiliacs suffering from
joint hemorrhage received millimeter wave (MW) therapy at biologically active points beginning on the first day of hospital
release. Adults were treated with an "Electronica-KVCh" device (61 GHz, 5 mW maximum power) and children were treated with
a "Porog" device, which generates low-intensity wide-band MMW noise. Exposures in both groups lasted for 20-25 minutes per
day and were extended over a period of 10 days. Results indicated the treatment to be more effective than conventional therapy
with respect to alleviation of pain, need for medication, and other parameters.159
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study
examined the effects of millimeter wave therapy combined with conventional methods in the treatment of viral hepatitis in
children. Making use of a "Yav'-1-5,6" or "Yav'-1-7,7" device, MW therapy involved 14-15 exposures of, on average, 30 minutes
per day at wavelengths of either 5.6 or 7.1 mm. Results indicated the combined treatment to be more effective than conventional
treatment only, leading to a more rapid restoration of liver function.160
Results of this study showed that the use of magnetic fields was effective in treating
patients suffering from viral hepatitis who had previously not benefited from conventional drug therapies.161
This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in children suffering from various
forms of viral hepatitis. Magnetotherapy consisted of alternating magnetic fields applied to the liver area daily over a total
of 10-15 days. Results indicated magnetotherapy led to more rapid and trouble-free recovery.162
This double-blind, placebo-controlled
study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in patients following herniated disk surgery. Results showed that 52 percent
of patients receiving the treatment compared to 30 percent of controls reported being free of symptoms at the time of hospital
This double-blind study examined the
effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on loosened hip prostheses. Results showed an increase of bone density in all patients
receiving PEMF treatment compared to only 60 percent of controls. The authors argue such findings suggest PEMF elicits early
bone reconstruction, which enhances early weight bearing.164
This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, 50 G)
in treating aseptic loosening of total hip prostheses. PEMF therapy consisted of 20 minutes per day for 6 days per week over
a total of 20 such sessions and was begun, on average, a year and a half following the start of loosening. Results showed
PEMF to have some beneficial effects with respect to loosened hip arthroplasties, although it was not effective in patients
suffering severe pain due to extreme loosening.165
Results of this 11-year study involving
3014 patients found pulsed magnetic field treatment at low frequencies and intensities to be a highly effective, side-effect-free
therapy for joint disease.168
This review article notes that placebo-controlled
studies have shown positive results concerning the use of pulsed magnetic field therapy in the treatment of secondary chronic
This study examined the effects of low-frequency
magnetic fields coupled with conventional therapies in rats suffering from inflammatory lung disease. Results showed that
rats receiving the magnetic fields experienced significant reductions in lung abscesses and associated symptoms, and similar
beneficial effects were seen among a group of 165 human patients receiving comparable treatment.177
This review article examined the
data concerning impulsed magnetic fields in the treatment of lupus erythematosus. Studies indicate that the treatment can
be beneficial due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, its positive action on microcirculation, and immunological
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of UHF and microwave
therapy in treating patients suffering from systemic lupus. Twenty-six patients were given 30-35 W of microwave irradiation
administered to the adrenal region. Twenty-five patients were given 30-35 W UHF administered bilaterally to the temporal region.
The treatment regimen for both groups included 18-20 daily sessions. A group of 11 patients were used as controls. Results
showed both treatments to be effective, with 27 percent of microwave patients and 66 percent of UHF patients reporting total
elimination of polyarthralgia, myalgia, and painful contractures.179
Results of this study indicated that the bitemporal application of ultrahigh-frequency
electromagnetic fields to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal area daily over a period of 18-20 days had beneficial effects in patients
suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus.180
This article reports on the case
of a 55-year-old female chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patient who received a single external application of low magnetic
fields (7.5-picotesla; 5-Hz frequency) which lasted 20 minutes. The treatment quickly led to improvements in a variety of
areas, including fatigue, sleep, vision, bladder function, movement and speech problems, and mood.182
This study reports on four cases of multiple sclerosis who experienced improvements
in visuospatial and visuomotor functions following treatment with external application of low magnetic fields.183
This article reports on the case of a 50-year-old female chronic progressive multiple
sclerosis patient who received a single external application of low magnetic fields who experienced significant improvements
following the treatment.184
This article reports on the cases of three patients suffering from long-time symptoms
of multiple sclerosis who received treatment with extracerebral pulsed electromagnetic fields over a period of between 6 and
18 months. Results showed all three patients experienced significant improvements in cognitive functions.185
This is a report on the cases of two chronic multiple sclerosis patients exhibiting
severe speech problems. Symptoms were completely resolved following 3-4 weeks of treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.186
This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering
from alexia (lack of understanding of written words) who experienced a reversal of the alexia following the start of picotesla-range
electromagnetic field treatment.187
This article reports on the case of a middle-aged disabled female patient with
a 19-year history of chronic relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Within one day of receiving experimental treatment with
picotesla electromagnetic fields, the patient exhibited improvements in her condition. The patient continued with 1-2 treatments
per week over a period of 32 months. During this time, significant improvements were seen with respect to a range of physical
symptoms, as well as cognitive functions.188
The cases of three female multiple sclerosis patients exhibiting suicidal behavior
are discussed in this article. Treatment with pulsed picotesla-level electromagnetic fields resolved the suicidal behavior
in all three patients, an improvement that was maintained over a follow-up period of 3.5 years.189
This article reports on the case of a 36-year-old man severely disabled with partial
paralysis and lack of coordination. Three treatment sessions per week with pulsed electromagnetic fields over a period of
one year led to a range of improvements, including improvements in gait, balance, bowel and bladder functions, vision, mood,
and sleep. No progression of symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis was seen throughout the course of EMF treatment.190
This article reports on the cases of two multiple sclerosis patients suffering
from chronic ataxia who performed poorly on human figure drawing tests administered to measure body image perception. Treatment
with extracerebral applications of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields led to improvements in gait and balance as well as
a normalization in body image perception as seen on a repeat of the same test each patient.191
This article reports on the case of a 51-year-old female patient with remitting-progressive
multiple sclerosis who experienced a successful reduction in carbohydrate craving believed to be associated with the exacerbation
of her condition following treatment with a series of extracranial AC pulsed applications of picotesla flux intensity electromagnetic
This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering
from a chronic progressive course of the disease who experienced a reduction in tremors following treatment with brief external
applications of pulsed EMFs of 7.5-pT intensity.195
This article reports on the cases of three female chronic multiple sclerosis patients
who experienced a reversal of cognitive deficits following treatment with brief external applications of alternating pulsed
electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range of intensity.196
This article reports on the cases of three female multiple sclerosis patients with
poor word fluency who experienced a 100-percent increase in word output following 4-5 sessions of treatment with external
applications of extremely weak electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range of intensity.197
This article reports on the case of a 58-year-old male multiple sclerosis patient
with a 37-year history of the disease. Treatment with external application of magnetic fields in the picotesla range led to
a speedy improvement of neurological symptoms in the areas of walking, balance, sensory symptoms, and bladder function. Improvements
in numerous cognitive functions were seen within 24 hours of treatment as well.198
This article reports on the case of a 36-year-old multiple sclerosis patient who
experienced immediate improvements in visuoperceptive functions following treatment with external application of picotesla-range
This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering
from falls due to rapid deterioration in balance and triggered distracting external auditory stimuli. Treatment with a series
of extracranially applied, low-frequency picotesla-range intensity electromagnetic fields quickly resolved such symptoms associated
with a loss of balance.200
This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients experiencing
continuous and debilitating daily fatigue over the course of several years. Treatment with extracranially applied picotesla
flux electromagnetic fields dramatically improved symptoms of fatigue in all three patients.201
This article reports on the cases of two female patients with chronic progressive-stage
multiple sclerosis who suffered from regular worsening of their symptoms starting approximately a week prior to menstruation
and abating at menstruation onset. Such symptoms were resolved in both patients two months following the start of treatment
with the extracranial application of weak electromagnetic fields.205
This article reports on the case of a 64-year-old female patient with a 22-year
history of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Two 30-minute treatments with low-level electromagnetic fields produced
a marked improvement in a variety of symptoms.207
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that pulsed electromagnetic
fields administered daily over a period of 15 days proved to be an effective treatment in reducing spasticity and incontinence
associated with multiple sclerosis.209
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that pulsed electromagnetic
fields administered daily over a period of 15 days is a generally effective treatment in reducing symptoms associated with
multiple sclerosis, with the most positive improvements involving the alleviation of spasticity and pain.210
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that exposure
to magnetic fields produced beneficial clinical effects in patients suffering from cerebral paralysis and in patients with
This study examined the effects of pulsed
electromagnetic fields on recovery following muscle injury in rats. Results showed that both pulsed and constant magnetic
fields were equally effective, with the constant field being more intense.212
This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (Gyuling-Bordacs
device) in patients suffering from peripheral muscle paralysis. Treatment consisted of 20-minute exposures (2-50 Hz, 70 G).
Results showed 50-Hz pulsed electromagnetic fields to be the most effective level of treatment and that such therapy enhanced
muscle irritability in peripheral paralysis patients as well as in healthy controls.213
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study
examined the effects of low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields administered via soft collars on patients suffering from
persistent neck pain. Results indicated significantly beneficial effects following three weeks of treatment.214
This controlled study found that exposure
to pulsed electromagnetic fields enhanced the speed and degree of peripheral nerve regeneration twofold in rats with experimentally
severed sciatic nerves.215
Results of this controlled study demonstrated that treatment with 15 minutes per
day of pulsed electromagnetic fields enhanced recovery time of experimentally-injured nerves in rats.216
Results of this study indicated that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields on
experimentally divided and sutured nerves in rats sped up regeneration of damaged nerves and the time it took for limb use
to be recovered.219
This study examined the effects of a Soviet Polyus-1 low-frequency magnetotherapy
device used to administer approximately 10 mT for approximately 10 minutes in patients with optic nerve atrophy. Patients
underwent 10-15 sessions per course. Results showed that vision acuity in patients with low acuity values (below 0.04 diopters)
improved in 50 percent of cases. It was also found that the treatment improved ocular blood flow in cases of optic nerve atrophy.
Optimal benefits were experienced after 10 therapy sessions.220
This article summarizes
clinical results obtained the authors in using pulsed electromagnetic fields (Gyuling-Bordacs device) in the treatment of
neurological and locomotor disorders among a group of 148 patients in a hospital setting over a period of 3 years. The authors
claim that 58-80 percent of such patients experienced benefits of some kind over the course of magnetotherapy.221
This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy on patients suffering from nervous
system diseases. Treatment consisted of 10-12 6-minute exposures (10-20 kG, 0.1-0.6 Hz). Results indicated beneficial effects
in 25 of the 27 patients receiving the treatment.222
Results of this study found that the use of magnetic fields (30-35 mT, 10 and 100
Hz) produced beneficial effects in 93 percent of patients suffering from nerve problems.223
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled
study indicated that exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields had beneficial effects in the treatment of patients suffering
from painful osteoarthritis of the knee or cervical spine. PEMF therapy consisted of 18 exposures lasting 30 minutes and administered
3-5 times per week.224
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that treatment with pulsed
electromagnetic fields produced significant favorable effects in patients suffering from osteoarthritis.226
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study showed that treatment with pulsed electromagnetic
fields yielded significant benefits in patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee or cervical spine. PEMF therapy
(25 G, 5-24 Hz) consisted of 18 30-minute exposures over a period of 3-4 weeks.227
This controlled study examined the effects of changeable magnetic fields (Polus-101
device) coupled with more conventional therapies in the treatment of patients suffering from osteoarthrosis. Magnetic therapy
consisted of daily 20 minute exposures for a total of 12 sessions. Results showed more rapid improvements of immunological
indices and alleviation of symptoms associated with the disease among patients receiving the combination therapy compared
to those treated only conventionally.228
This study examined the effects of
alternating magnetic fields (50 Hz, 10-50 mT) combined with conservative therapy in patients suffering from spinal osteochondrosis.
Treatment consisted of 20-minute exposures over a total of 20-25 such exposures per course. Results showed clinical benefits
in 95 percent of patients receiving the combination treatment compared to just 30 percent among controls.229
This pilot study found that the use
of pulsed electromagnetic fields produced beneficial effects in patients suffering from osteonecrosis of the femoral head.230
This study examined the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of
osteonecrosis. Compared to published findings concerning surgical treatment, results showed PEMF therapy to be superior in
This study examined the effects of pulsed
electromagnetic fields on postmenopausal osteoporosis in 10-month-old female rats. Results showed that EMF treatment for one
hour per day for 4 months with a 30-gauss maximum pulse reduced bone mass loss to within 10 percent, while a 70-gauss maximum
pulse reduced bone mass loss entirely.232
This study examined the effects of long-term pulsing electromagnetic fields in
the form of repetitive pulse burst waves over a period of 6 months in osteoporotic rats. Results showed increased bone volume
and formation activity.234
This study examined the effects of a 72-Hz pulsating electromagnetic field administered
for 10 hours per day over a period of 12 weeks on bone density in women prone to osteoporosis. Results found significant increases
in bone mineral density in the area of EMF exposure.235
In this study, osteoporosis patients received treatment with pulsed electromagnetic
fields (50 G, 50-100 Hz) for 30 minutes per session over a period of two years involving 20 sessions. These subjects were
compared to similar patients treated with calcitonin. Results indicated PEMF to be effective in reducing pain, and to be even
more so when combined with the conventional drug treatment.236
This controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in
women suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Treatment consisted of daily 30-minute exposures for 20 days every six months.
Results showed that PEMF treatment combined with 100 IU per day of nasal spray synthetic salmon calcitonin arrested bone decrease
and significantly increased bone mass relative to patients receiving drug therapy alone.237
Results of this study found the use of total-body low-frequency magnetic fields
(60 G, 50-100 Hz) to be effective in the treatment of patients suffering from osteoporosis-related symptoms. Treatment consisted
of a total of 15 exposures of 30 minutes each.238
This study examined the effects synchronizing
pulse waves in the impaired area when treating patients suffering from acute diffuse otitis externa with low-level magnetic
fields in combination with conventional therapies. Patients were divided into three groups. The first received ultrahigh-frequency
or very-high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The second received 15-minute daily exposures to 50-Hz alternating or pulsating
20-mT magnetic fields. The third group of patients were treated switching on the same magnetic fields only during propagation
of the pulse wave through the ear vessels. Results showed a 100 percent recovery rate in patients across all three groups,
with recovery taking the least amount of time among those in group 3.239
This study found that sinusoidal and
continuous low-frequency alternating magnetic field generated a Polius-1 apparatus exhibited beneficial effects in patients
suffering from chronic pancreatitis.241
This controlled study examined the effects of combining pulsed electric stimulation
and laser light with conventional treatment in patients suffering from acute pancreatitis. Results showed the combined therapy
to have the most significant effects in patients with severe forms of the disease.242
This article reports on the case
of a 73-year-old male Parkinson's patients suffering from disabling resting and postural tremors in the right hand, as well
as other symptoms. Two successive 20-minute treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields of 7.5-picotesla intensity and
5-Hz frequency sinusoidal wave led to improvements in visuospatial performance and a legible signature. Significant improvements
in Parkinsonian motor symptoms were also seen following additional treatments.243
This article reports on the case of a medicated 61-year-old Parkinson's patient
who experienced rapid reversal of symptoms following a single external application of picotesla-range magnetic fields.244
This article reports on four Parkinson's patients who experienced significant improvement
in symptoms following treatment with picotesla-range magnetic fields. Two additional patients suffering from Parkinson's-related
dementia experienced significant improvements in visuospatial impairment.245
Noting that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new and noninvasive method
of direct cortical neuron stimulation, this review article discusses recent studies showing that TMS has led to improvements
in symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease and depression.246
Results of this study showed that the application of ELF magnetic fields via a
plastic helmet device housing a set of coils (generating fields of 8 Hz and 7.5 pT) produced beneficial clinical effects after
30 minutes in patients suffering Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.247
This article reports on the cases of two Parkinson's patients who experienced improvements
in motor symptoms following treatment with external application of weak electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.248
This article reports on the cases of three Parkinson's patients on full medication
who exhibited an improvement in right hemispheric functions following a series of treatments with external application of
electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.249
This article reports on the case of a nonmedicated 49-year-old male Parkinson's
patient who experienced a dramatic improvement in motor, depressive, and cognitive symptoms following treatment with brief
extracranial applications of picotesla-range electromagnetic fields.251
This article reports on the case of a 61-year-old Parkinson's patient who experienced
improvements in the severity of motor problems 30 minutes after treatment with external application of weak electromagnetic
fields in the picotesla range. Sham treatment had no such effects in the same patient.252
This article reports on the cases of five Parkinsonian patients on full medication
who experienced a marked improvement in performance on Thurstone's Word-Fluency Test following treatment with a series of
extremely-low-intensity electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range and of 5-8 Hz frequency.253
This article reports on the case of a 69-year-old Parkinsonian patient who was
able to discontinue most medication for two weeks following two treatment sessions with extracranial picotesla-range magnetic
fields. Symptoms recurred after three weeks and the patient received four more magnetic field sessions on consecutive days
after four weeks. The patient was then able to discontinue medications completely.254
This article reports on the cases of five medicated Parkinsonian patients who experienced
improvements in motor, behavioral, and autonomic functions, and in visuoconstructional tasks following treatment with extracranial
application of magnetic fields in the picotesla range.255
This article reports on the cases of three medicated Parkinsonian patients who
experienced relief from disabling periods of freezing gait following treatment with extracerebral applications of pulsed electromagnetic
fields in the picotesla range.256
The cases of four nondemented Parkinsonian patients under full medication are discussed
in this article. These patients performed poorly on human figure drawing tests administered to measure body image perception.
Treatment with extracerebral applications of picotesla-range intensity electromagnetic fields led to marked improvements in
body image perception as seen on a repeat of the same test each patient.257
This article reports on the cases of four medicated Parkinsonian patients who experienced
reversal of visuospatial impairments as measured the Clock Drawing Test following treatment with externally applied weak electromagnetic
fields of picotesla-range intensity.258
This article reports on the case of a 68-year-old male patient suffering from Parkinson's
disease over a period of 7 years. The patient had experienced little relief from traditional medical therapy. Treatment with
external application of picotesla-range magnetic fields led to quick improvements with respect to tremor and foot dystonia,
gait, postural reflexes, mood, anxiety, and cognitive and autonomic functions.259
This article reports on the cases of four Parkinsonian patients who exhibited significant
improvements in motor symptoms following treatment with externally applied magnetic fields of picotesla-range intensity.260
This article reports on two cases of fully medicated Parkinson's patients who experienced
enhanced visuoperceptive functions as measured numerous drawing tests following extracranial treatment with picotesla-range
This article reports on the case of a 69-year-old Parkinsonian patient on full
medication who experienced a marked improvement on several different drawing tests following 30 minutes of treatment with
picotesla-range magnetic fields.262
This article reports on the case of a Parkinson's patient suffering from severe
movement problems who received treatment with external artificial weak magnetic fields with a frequency of 2 Hz and intensity
of 7.5 picotesla over a period of 6 minutes. Results showed a significant attenuation in disability and near total reversal
of the symptoms lasting approximately 72 hours. The patient then applied equivalent magnetic fields on a daily basis at home.
Sustained improvement was seen throughout an observation of one month.263
This article reports on the case of a 67-year-old male patient suffering from Parkinson's
disease and levodopa-related motor fluctuations. Treatment with the application of external weak magnetic fields led to improvements
in general Parkinsonian symptoms along with the amelioration of "on-off" symptoms.264
In this study, patients suffering
from peripheral neuritis were exposed to high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on acupuncture points. EMR was generated
Electronica-EnF, Aria, and Porog devices with tunable frequencies ranging between 53 and 78 GHz. Treatments were daily and
lasted 25 minutes. Results showed full restoration of nerve function in 87 percent of patients.265
Results of this study showed that magnetic
laser therapy decreased the severity of acute respiratory insufficiency and treatment course, and prevented destructive complications
in children with infiltrative acute destructive pneumonia between the ages of 1 and 12 years.266
This study found both pulsed
magnetic field treatment (20-30 minutes per day) and whole body alternating current magnetic field treatment (30 minutes per
day) to be effective therapies for post-herpetic neuralgia in older patients. Pulsed magnetic field treatment consisted of
0.6-T (6-kG) samarium/cobalt magnets surrounded spiral coils generating a maximum 0.1-T pulse. Pads were pasted on the sensory
areas innervated the dorsal root of the spinal cord where there was scar-association pain or paresthesia. Stimuli were delivered
at 280 V and 8 Hz. Alternating current magnetic field treatment involved a treatment bed consisting of 19 electrodes containing
paired coils and with a maximum magnetic flux density around the electrodes of 0.08 T.267
In this study, 92 congenital pseudoarthrosis
patients received treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields. Results indicated a 76-percent rate of lesion recovery.270
In this study, 34 patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis-associated infantile
nonunions received treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields. Results indicated that 50 percent experienced full healing,
21 percent experienced healing with need for protections, and 29 percent experienced failure. The majority of failures were
among men with a history of early fracture. Following the demonstration of coil effects, the PEMF treatment was combined with
surgical realignment, immobilization, and grafting.271
In this study, 29 congenital pseudoarthrosis patients received extremely-low-frequency
pulsing electromagnetic fields. Results: Over 70 percent experienced full healing, 21 percent experienced healing with need
for protections, and 29 percent experienced failure. The majority of failures were among men with a history of early fracture.272
In this article, the authors report on their own clinical use of electrodynamic
field therapy in the treatment of 271 pseudoarthrosis patients over a period of 8 years. They report bony healing in 92 percent
of such cases.273
This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on 91 patients
with congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia. Results showed an overall success rate of 72 percent.274
Results of this study indicated that treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields
had beneficial effects in children suffering from congenital pseudoarthrosis.275
Results of this study indicated that pulsed electromagnetic fields (72 Hz) can
be an effective therapy for patients suffering from lesions associated with congenital pseudoarthroses when treatment is combined
with appropriate orthopedic management.276
Noting the well-established
dangers associated with electroconvulsive therapy, the author, in this theoretical article, argues that transcranial magnetic
stimulation should be looked at as an alternative psychiatric treatment. The author asserts that TMS has several advantages
over ECT in that it is painless, noninvasive, and more effective on deep structures of the brain.277
Results of this study showed
that the use of low-frequency magnetic fields helped to prevent and treat critically ill patients suffering from pyoinflammatory
bronchopulmonary complications, and to prevent such complications as well.278
This article reports on the case of a schizophrenic patient suffering from respiratory
difficulties associated with neuroleptic withdrawal. Treatment using external application of picotesla-range magnetic fields
quickly attenuated the severity of such problems.279
Results of this placebo-controlled
study showed that magnetotherapy exhibited beneficial effects with respect to cavernous blood flow in male patients suffering
from sexual problems.280
This study examined the effects of a combination pulsing magnetic field (PMF)/vacuum
therapy in the treatment of impotence. Vacuum therapy consisted of the penis being placed into a hermetic cylinder with a
negative pressure of 180-260 mmHg for 10-12 minutes per exposure for a total of 12-15 exposures. PMF therapy consisted of
the same length and number of exposures, with 6 Hz, 30 mT being applied to the penile area at the same time as vacuum therapy.
Results showed that, following the combination therapy, sexual function was restored in about 71 percent of patients, was
improved in 17 percent, and did not change in 17 percent. For those patients receiving vacuum therapy only, the numbers were
51, 24, and 24 percent, respectively.281
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of weak magnetic
fields in men suffering from various sexual disorders, including decreased erection and premature ejaculation. The three different
magnetic stimulators used included the "Biopotenzor," "Eros," and "Bioskan-1" devices. All patients wore one of the three
devices for a 3-week period. Results showed full restoration of sexual function in 38 percent of patients in the Biopotenzor
group, 31 percent in the Eros group, 36 percent in the Bioskan-1 group, and in just 15 percent of the controls. Improvements
in sexual function were seen among 42 percent, 39 percent, 47 percent, and 18 percent, respectively.282
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled
study indicated that low-energy-emission therapy significantly improved sleeping patterns among patients suffering from chronic
psychophysiological insomnia. Therapy was administered 3 times per week, always in late afternoon and for 20 minutes, over
a period of 4 weeks.284
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of low-energy
emission therapy (27 MHz amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields) in patients suffering from insomnia. Treatment consisted
of 3 exposures per week over a 4-week period. Results showed significant increases in total sleep time among patients in the
treatment group relative to controls.285
This review article notes that studies have found low-energy emission therapy to
be effective in the treatment of chronic insomnia, and suggests that it may also be of value for patients suffering from generalized
Spinal Cord Injury
Results of this study found that
exposure to constant magnetic fields improved healing in rats with experimentally induced spinal cord injury, and in human
patients suffering from spinal cord trauma as well.287
This study examined the effects of functional magnetic stimulation used to treat
spinal cord injury in seven male patients. Results showed the treatment to be an effective noninvasive approach.288
Results of this study demonstrated that treatment
with sinusoidal modulated currents coupled with transcerebral magnetic fields proved more effective than either therapy on
its own in the treatment of stroke patients during the period of early rehabilitation.290
This study found that exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields following focal
cerebral ischemia provided significant protection against neuronal damage, in rabbits.291
Results of this study pointed to the efficacy of magnetic field therapy in the
treatment of patients suffering from a variety of conditions associated with different brain vascular diseases.292
This study examined the effects of magnetic
fields on synovitis in rats. Results showed that the placement of a 3800-gauss magnet on the bottom of the cage significantly
suppressed inflammation associated with the condition, relative to controls.293
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled
study indicated that pulsed electromagnetic field therapy exhibited significant beneficial effects in the treatment of patients
suffering from persistent rotator cuff tendonitis.294
This article reports on the case
of a 6-year-old boy suffering from Tourette's syndrome who experienced improvements in visuoconstructional and visuomotor
skills, along with more general symptomatic improvements, following the extracranial application of electromagnetic fields
in the picotesla range of intensity.295
This study examined the efficacy of millimeter
waves combined with conventional drug treatment in patients suffering from tuberculosis. MW therapy consisted of 10 exposures
of the thymus area for 60 minutes per day using a "Yavor" apparatus (6.4 or 7.1 mm wavelength). Controls received drug treatment
only. Results indicated that while MW/drug therapy had no effect on the clearance of the tuberculosis bacteria, it did facilitate
clinical recovery faster than drug therapy alone.296
This study examined the effects of extremely-high-frequency therapy as administered
via a "Yav'-1-7,1" apparatus (7.1 mm wavelength) on tuberculosis patients. Results showed a 25-percent improvement in patients
receiving the therapy as a pathogenic treatment. A 72-percent improvement rate was seen among patients who received the therapy
as treatment for concurrent diseases.297
This controlled study examined the effects of constant elastic electromagnetic
fields (40 mT) in patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. Therapy consisted of 30-45 minute daily application of either
a single magnet or a pair of magnets placed on the chest at an area high in skin temperature over a 1-3 month period. When
coupled with conventional treatments, one third of patients receiving the constant electromagnetic fields experienced healing
of tubercular cavities. contrast, only one fifth of patients receiving conventional treatment alone experienced such effects.
One month into combination treatment, there was no evidence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum in half the patients
relative to only one third of controls.298
Ulcers (Gastric and Duodenal)
Results of this study
showed that the administration of millimetric electromagnetic waves helped to normalize blood properties, subsequently improving
the effectiveness of more conventional gastric and duodenal ulcer treatment.303
This study examined the effects of millimeter wave (MW) therapy in 317 patients
suffering from duodenal and gastric ulcers. MW therapy consisted of 30 minutes per day exposure of the epigastric area ("Yav'-1"
apparatus, 10 mW/cm2, 5.6-mm wavelength) until complete ulcer cicatrization was achieved. Results showed a 95-percent rate
of ulcer cicatrization in patients receiving the treatment compared to a 78-percent rate in controls. One year follow up showed
a 54-percent ulcer recurrence rate in MW-treated patients, which was markedly less than the rate for controls.306
This controlled study found extremely-high-frequency therapy to be an effective
treatment in patients suffering from duodenal ulcers. Treatment consisted of 5-10 exposures, lasting 20-30 minutes, and making
use of the G4-142 apparatus (53.5-70.0 GHz frequency range).308
This study compared the effects of traditional drug treatment (TDT) to those of
microwave resonance therapy (MRT) in patients suffering from duodenal ulcers. Results indicated the mean hospital stay for
patients in the TDT group was approximately 22 days. Throughout this period, ulcers healed in 38 percent of patients, were
reduced in 17 percent, showed no change in 43 percent, and increased in 2 percent. No pain relief was seen in 32 percent.
contrast, mean discharge time for patients in the MRT group was approximately 12 days. Pain was generally stopped in 3-6 days.
Complete healing occurred in 81 percent, a decrease was seen in 16 percent, and ulcer size did not change in just 3 percent.
Remission occurred in 98 percent of such patients.310
In this study, microwave resonance therapy (MRT) was administered to 2642 patients
suffering from duodenal ulcers and to 78 with gastric ulcers. Treatment involved the use of a G4-142 device (53.6-78.3 GHz,
less than 2 mW/cm2 incident power) as well as "Electronika-KVCh" and "Porog-1" devices. Patients received 6-12 daily exposures
of between 20 and 25 minutes. Results showed a total ulcer cicatrization in 80 percent of patients, and arrested pain syndrome
in almost 100 percent.311
This study examined the use of magnetotherapy
coupled with galvanization and intratissue electrophoresis in 86 patients suffering from trophic ulcers. A "Potok-1" apparatus
with a density of current equal to 0.05-0.1 mA/cm2 was used to create an electrical field. The "MAG-30" apparatus for low-frequency
magnetotherapy with induction of 30 mT and area of exposure of 20 cm2 was applied to a trophic ulcer site at the same time.
Results led the authors to conclude that magnetogalvanotherapy is the recommended treatment for trophic ulcers of the lower
This review article discusses the theoretical and clinical applications of magnetic
field therapy in the treatment of trophic ulcers of the lower limbs.300
This study looked at the effects of conventional trophic ulcer treatment alone
and in combination with alternating magnetic field (AMF) or constant magnetic field (CMF) exposures in a group of patients
suffering from various types of trophic ulcers of the lower limbs. Results showed an average hospital stay of 31 days in the
CMF group and 27 days in the AMF group, compared to 40 days among controls. Based on these and related findings, the authors
suggest combination AMF therapy to be most effective.304
This placebo-controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields
in the treatment of decubitus ulcers in hospitalized elderly patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Patients received
daily PEMF stimulation in conjunction with conventional treatment for a period of up to 5 weeks. The findings were that combined
PEMF/conventional treatment was superior to conventional treatment and to the placebo received controls.305
Results of this study found that the daily use of electromagnetolaser therapy decreased
mean healing time in patients suffering from lower extremity trophic ulcers to approximately 18 days, compared with approximately
26 days in patients receiving laser therapy alone.307
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that treatment with nonthermal
pulsed electromagnetic energy (PEMET) accelerated would healing in spinal cord injury patients suffering from stage II and
III pressure ulcers. PEMET treatment consisted of pulsed 27.12-MHz energy produced via a Diapulse device. Energy was delivered
the use of a treatment head placed in wound dressings, in 30-minute periods twice a day for 12 weeks or until sores healed.312
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic
fields (75 Hz, 2.7 mT) applied 4 hours per day for a maximum of 3 months coupled with conventional therapies in patients suffering
from trophic lesions. Results showed the treatment to have positive effects, but only on small lesions.314
In this article, the authors report
on their successful use of magnetic-laser therapy in inflammations of the urinary system in a urological clinic setting.316
Results of this study showed magnetolaser therapy to be effective in the treatment
of patients suffering from urolithiasis (stone formation). Magnetolaser therapy involved the use of a Milita device with a
35-mT magnetic field.317
This study examined the effects of static
magnetic fields on postoperative wounds in 21 patients undergoing plastic surgery. Magnetic patches ranging in thickness from
1 to 6 mm, and 2450 to 3950 G field strength were administered over the area of operation for a total of 48 hours. Thirteen
patients received the magnets after pain or edema had appeared and 8 received them prophylactically. Results showed a decrease
in pain, edema, and coloration in approximately 60 percent of patients. Such symptoms disappeared entirely in 75 percent.321
Results of this study indicated that treatment with pulsating electromagnetic field
either alone or in combination with laser therapy exhibited healing effects with respect to peripheral nerve lesions and general
wound healing relative to controls.322
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of a magnetic
treatment device taped over the carpal tunnel against wrist pain sustained at work among a group of turkey plant employees.
Results showed that the device was effective in alleviating such pain and that it was free of side effects.323
Results of this controlled study showed that low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic
fields produced significant beneficial cutaneous wound healing effects in rats.324
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that treatment with nonthermal
pulsed radiofrequency energy accelerated would healing in spinal cord injury patients suffering from stage II and III pressure
ulcers. RF treatment consisted of pulsed 27.12-MHz energy produced via a Diapulse device, with energy delivered via a treatment
head placed in wound dressings, in 30-minute periods twice a day for 12 weeks or until sores healed.325
After a discussion of the mechanics involved in the use of pulsed electromagnetic
energy in the treatment of disease, the author discusses findings from recent studies pointing to the therapy's effectiveness
with respect to the treatment of acute soft-tissue lesions.326
Results of this placebo-controlled study indicated that low-intensity continuous
microwave radiation administered over a period of 7 days was effective in treating post-operative purulent wounds associated
with abdominal surgery.327
Results of this study showed that combined magneto/laser therapy reduced inflammation
and wound suppuration, and enhanced tissue healing significantly in patients suffering from gunshot wounds relative to conventional
Noting that pulsed electromagnetic fields have been used in bone healing for more
than 20 years, this review article cites recent results from both animal and human studies pointing to the efficacy of PEMF
in the treatment of soft-tissue injuries as well.329
This double-blind study examined the effects of postoperative nonthermal pulsed
high-frequency electromagnetic fields on edema formation and bruise healing in boys undergoing orchidopexy. Treatment involved
exposure 3 times daily for the first 4 days following surgery. Significant effects with respect to rate of bruise resolution
were reported in patients receiving the treatment relative to controls.330
This controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in
patients suffering from chronic productive inflammation or orbital tissue. PEMF treatment consisted of 7-10 minute daily exposures
over a period of 10 days. Controls received conventional treatment only. Both groups showed good improvement, but patients
treated with the PEMFs recovered significantly faster than did controls.331
1. R. Sandyk, "Alzheimer's Disease: Improvement of Visual Memory and Visuoconstructive Performance Treatment with Picotesla
Range Magnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 76(3-4), June 1994, p. 185-225.
2. R. Sandyk, et al., "Age-related Disruption of Circadian Rhythms: Possible Relationship to Memory Impairment and Implications
for Therapy with Magnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 59(4), August 1991, p. 259-262.
3. A. Bellosi & R. Berget, "Pulsed Magnetic Fields: A Glimmer of Hope for Patients Suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,"
Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
4. A.A. Pilla & L. Kloth, "Effect of Pulsed Radio Frequency Therapy on Edema in Ankle Sprains: A Multisite Double-Blind
Clinical Study," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy,
5. Y. Mizushima, et al., "Effects of Magnetic Field on Inflammation," Experientia, 31(12), December 15, 1975, p. 1411-1412.
6. J.C. Reynolds, "The Use of Implantable Direct Current Stimulation in Bone Grafted Foot and Ankle Arthrodeses: A Retrospective
Review," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
7. T. Zizic, et al., "The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand with Pulsed Electrical Fields," Second World Congress
for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
8. V.D. Grigor'eva, et al., "Therapeutic Use of Physical Factors in Complex Therapy of Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis,"
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (6), 1995, p. 48-51.
9. B.Y. Drozdovski, et al., "Use of Magnetolaser Therapy with an AMLT-01 Apparatus in Complex Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis,"
Fiz Med, 4(1-2), 1994, p. 101-102.
10. E.A. Shlyapok, et al., "Use of Alternating Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in Combination with Radon Baths for Treatment of
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 4, 1992, p. 13-17.
11. V.D. Grigor'eva, et al., "Therapeutic Application of Low-Frequency and Constant Magnetic Fields in Patients with Osteoarthritis
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12. V.A. Machekhin, et al., "A New Method for Treating Chronic Blepharitis Using Magnetic Compounds and an Alternating Magnetic
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13. V.A. Machekhin, et al., "A New Method for Treating Chronic Blepharitis Using Magnetic Compounds and an Alternating Magnetic
Field," Vestn Oftalmol, 109(4), 1993, p. 16-18.
14. C.A. Bassett, et al., "Treatment of Therapeutically Resistant Non-unions with Bone Grafts and Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,"
Journal of Bone Joint Surg, 64(8), October 1982, p. 1214-1220.
15. C.A. Bassett, et al., "Treatment of Ununited Tibial Diaphyseal Fractures with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields," Journal of
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16. M.W. Meskens, et al., "Treatment of Delayed Union and Nonunion of the Tibia Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields. A Retrospective
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17. C.A. Bassett, "The Development and Application of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) for Ununited Fractures and Arthrodeses,"
Clin Plast Surg, 12(2), April 1985, p. 259-277.
18. G.K. Frykman, et al., "Treatment of Nonunited Scaphoid Fractures Pulsed Electromagnetic Field and Cast," Journal of Hand
Surg, 11(3), May 1986, p. 344-349.
19. E. Betti, et al., "Effect of Electromagnetic Field Stimulation on Fractures of the Femoral Neck. A Prospective Randomized
Double-Blind Study," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna,
20. V. Sollazzo, et al., "Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) on Human Osteoblast-Like Cells and Human Chondryocytes:
An In Vitro Study," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna,
21. J.T. Rya, et al., "Combine Magnetic Fields Stimulate Insulin-Like Growth Factor Production Potential Transcription Factor-Dependent
Mechanism(s)," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
22. C.A. Bassett, et al., "Pulsing Electromagnetic Field Treatment in Ununited Fractures and Failed Arthrodeses," JAMA, 247(5),
February 5, 1982, p. 623-628.
23. G.C. Traina, "Electromagnetic Field Stimulation of Osteotomies," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in
Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
24. J. Nepola, et al., "Effect of Exposure Time on Stimulation of Healing in the Rabbit Tibial Osteotomy Model a Time Varying
Pulsed Electromagnetic Field, and a Combined Magnetic Fields," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology
and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
25. G. Borsalino, et al., "Electrical Stimulation of Human Femoral Intertrochanteric Osteotomies. Double-Blind Study," Clin
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26. M. Marcer, et al., "Results of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) in Ununited Fractures after External Skeletal Fixation,"
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27. O. Wahlstrom, "Stimulation of Fracture Healing with Electromagnetic Fields of Extremely Low Frequency (EMF of ELF)," Clin
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28. A.W. Dunn & G.A. Rush, 3d, "Electrical Stimulation in Treatment of Delayed Union and Nonunion of Fractures and Osteotomies,"
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29. G. Fontanesi, et al., "Slow Healing Fractures: Can They be Prevented? (Results of Electrical Stimulation in Fibular Osteotomies
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30. F. Rajewski & W. Marciniak, "Use of Magnetotherapy for Treatment of Bone Malunion in Limb Lengthening. Preliminary Report,"
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31. R.B. Simonis, et al., "The Treatment of Non-union Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Combined with a Denham External Fixator,"
Injury, 15(4), January 1984, p. 255-260.
32. L. Sedel, et al., "Acceleration of Repair of Non-unions Electromagnetic Fields," Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot,
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33. J.C. Mulier & F. Spaas, "Out-patient Treatment of Surgically Resistant Non-unions Induced Pulsing Current - Clinical
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34. C.A. Bassett, "Conversations with C. Andrew L. Bassett, M.D. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields. A Noninvasive Therapeutic Modality
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35. B.T. O'Connor, "Treatment of Surgically Resistant Non-unions with Pulsed Electromagnetifc Fields," Reconstr Surg Traumatology,
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36. A. Bassett, "Therapeutic Uses of Electric and Magnetic Fields in Orthopedics," in D.O. Carpenter & S. Ayrapetyan, (eds.),
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37. A.A. Goldberg, "Computer Analysis of Data on More than 11,000 Cases of Ununited Fracture Submitted for Treatment with Pulsing
Electromagnetic Fields," Bioelectrical Repair and Growth Society, Second Annual Meeting, 20-22 September 1982, Oxford, UK,
38. O. Wahlstrom, "Electromagnetic Fields Used in the Treatment of Fresh Fractures of the Radius," Bioelectrical Repair and
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39. G.B. Gromak & G.A. Lacis, "Evaluations of the Efficacy of Using a Constant Magnetic Field in Treatment of Patients with
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40. A.F. Lynch & P. MacAuley, "Treatment of Bone Non-Union Electromagnetic Therapy," Ir Journal of Med Sci, 154(4), 1985,
41. C.A.L. Bassett, "Historical Overview of PEM-Assisted Bone and Tissue Healing," Bioelectromagnetics Society, 10th Annual
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42. V.M. Iurlov, et al., "The Efficacy of the Use of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Chronic Bronchitis," Voen Med Zh,
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43. R.R. Raylman, et al., "Exposure to Strong Static Magnetic Field Slows the Growth of Human Cancer Cells in Vitro," Bioelectromagnetics,
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44. N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., "The Assessment of the Efficacy of the Effect of a Rotational Magnetic Field on the Course of
the Tumor Process in Patients with Generalized Breast Cancer," Sov Med, (7), 1991, p. 25-27.
45. N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., "The Growth Dynamics of Walker Carcinosarcoma During Exposure to a Magnetic Eddy Field," Vopr
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46. Y. Omote, "An Experimental Attempt to Potentiate Therapeutic Effects of Combined Use of Pulsing Magnetic Fields and Antitumor
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48. C.K. Chou, et al., "Development of Electrochemical Treatment at the City of Hope," Second World Congress for Electricity
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of Surgery, 160(574 Suppl), 1994, p. 41-43.
50. D.V. Miasoedov, et al., "Experience with the Use of Microwave Resonance Therapy as a Modifying Factor in Oncological Therapy,"
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51. U. Randoll & R.M. Pangan, "The Role of Complex Biophysical-Chemical Therapies for Cancer," Bioelectrochem Bioenerg,
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52. V.G. Andreev, et al., "Radiomodifying Effect of a Constant Magnetic Field in Radiation Therapy of Patients with Cancer of
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53. V. Smirnova, "Anti-Tumorigenic Action of an Eddy Magnetic Field," Vrach, 2, 1994, p. 25-26.
54. N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., "A Case of Successful Treatment of a Patient with Breast Cancer Using a Rotating Electromagnetic
Field," Soviet Medicine, 8, 1991, p. 86-87.
55. V.A. Lubennikov, et al., "First Experience in Using a Whole-Body Magnetic Field Exposure in Treating Cancer Patients," Vopr
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56. I. Rodin, et al., "Use of Low-Intensity Eddy Magnetic Field in the Treatment of Patients with Skin Lymphomas," Voen Med Zh,
317(12), 1996, p. 32-34.
57. M.A. Dudchenko, et al., "The Effect of Combined Treatment with the Use of Magnetotherapy on the Systemic Hemodynamics of
Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Spinal Osteochondrosis," Lik Sprava, (5), May 1992, p. 40-43.
58. E.M. Vasil'eva, et al., "The Effect of a Low-frequency Magnetic Field on Erythrocyte Membrane Function and on the Prostanoid
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59. Y.B. Kirillov, et al., "Magnetotherapy in Obliterating Vascular Diseases of the Lower Extremities," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter
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60. O.M. Konova & M.A. Khan, "The Effect of a Low-frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Autonomic Nervous System in
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61. V.S. Zadionchenko, et al., "Prognostic Criteria of the Efficacy of Magnetic and Magnetic-laser Therapy in Patients with
the Initial Stages of Hypertension," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (1), January-February 1997, p. 8-11.
62. R.T. Gordon & D. Gordon, "Selective Resolution of Plaques and Treatment of Atherosclerosis Biophysical Alteration of
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63. S.G. Ivanov, et al., "The Magnetotherapy of Hypertension Patients," Ter Arkh, 62(9), 1990, p. 71-74.
64. R. Cadossi, "Protective Effect of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Acute Soft Tissue Ischaemic Injury," Second World Congress
for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
65. I.E. Ganelina, et al., "Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies in Complex Therapy for Severe Stenocardia,"
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66. T.V. Golovacheva, "EHF Therapy in Complex Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases," Millimeter Waves in Medicine and Biology,
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67. V.V. Orzeshkovskii, et al., "Clinical Application of Electromagnetic Fields," in I.G. Akoevs & V.V. Tiazhelov, (eds.),
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69. A.P. Dovganiuk & A.A. Minenkov, "The Use of Physical Factors in Treating Chronic Arterial Insufficiency of the Lower
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73. I.G. Alizade, et al., "Magnetic Treatment of Autologous Blood in the Combined Therapy of Hypertensive Patients," Vopr Kurortol
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74. E.V. Rolovlev, "Treatment of Essential Hypertension Patients an Alternating Magnetic Field Puncture," All-Union Symposium:
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75. I.N. Danilova & E.M. Orekhova, "Application of Sinusoidally-Modulated Currents in the Electrosleep Therapeutic Procedure,"
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76. S.G. Ivanov, et al., "Use of Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Hypertensive Disease," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz
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77. S.G. Ivanov, "The Comparative Efficacy of Nondrug and Drug Methods of Treating Hypertension," Ter Arkh, 65(1), 1993, p.
78. T.A. Kniazeva & R. Arutiunian, "The Effect of Low-Frequency Magnetic Field and General Iodobromide Baths with the Presence
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79. L.N. Budkar, et al., "Magnetolaser Therapy in Treatment of Ischemic Heart Disease and Heart Rhythm Disorders," Doktor Lending,
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80. L.L. Orlov, et al., "Effect of a Running Pulse Magnetic Field on Some Humoral Indices and Physical Capacity in Patients
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81. T.A. Kniazeva, "The Efficacy of Low-Intensity Exposures in Hypertension," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 1, 1994,
82. A.G. Kakulia, "The Use of Sonic Band Magnetic Fields in Various Diseases," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 3, 1982,
83. S.S. Gabrielian, et al., "Use of Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Patients with Atherosclerotic Encephalopathy,"
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84. N.A. Temur'iants, et al., "Use of Millimeter-Wave Therapy for Increasing of Nonspecific Resistivity in Children Suffering
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85. E.I. Pasynkov, et al., "Therapeutic Use of Alternating Magnetic Field in the Treatment of Patients with Chronic Diseases
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86. A.P. Dovganiuk, "Balneologic and Physical Therapy of Chronic Venous Insufficiency of Extremities," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter
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87. Y.B. Kirillov, et al., "Magnetotherapy for Obliterative Disease of the Vessels of the Legs," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech
Fiz Kult, 3, 1992, p. 14-17.
88. E.N. Grebnev & A.V. Shumskii, "Immunocorrective Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Herpetic Stomatitis Using Magnetic
Autohemotherapy," Stomatologiia (Mosk), 74(2), 1995, p. 37-39.
89. R.G. Schwartz, "Electric Sympathetic Block: An Advanced Clinical Technique for the Treatment of Complex Acute Chronic Pain,"
Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
90. N.V. Ordzhonikidze, et al., "Experimental Validation of the Efficacy of Laser-magnetic Therapy for Chronic Placental Insufficiency,"
Akush Ginekol (Mosk), (1), 1994, p. 18-21.
91. T.N. Leont'eva, "Ultrasonic Ethmoidotomy Combined with Intracavitary Magnetotherapy in Chronic Polypous Ethmoiditis," Vestn
Otorinolaringol, (4), July-August 1990, p. 38-41.
92. S.P. Seregin & A.V. Panov, "The Correction of Prostatic Hemodynamics in Chronic Prostatitis," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter
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93. A.D. Deineka & A.M. Pozdniakov, "Magnetolaser Therapy of Constitutional Hyperbilrubinemia," Fiz Med, 4(1-2), 1994, p.
94. A.A. Verzin, "Action of Gentamycin Against a Background of Magnetotherapy of the Anterior Chamber in a Traumatic Infected
Erosion of the Cornea," Antibiotiki, 27(10), October 1982, p. 774-775.
95. M.A. Darendeliler, et al., "Light Maxillary Expansion Forces with the Magnetic Expansion Device. A Preliminary Investigation,"
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96. A. Breunig & T. Rakosi, "The Treatment of Open Bite Using Magnets," Fortschr Kieferorthop, 53(3), June 1992, p. 179-186.
97. F.G. Sander & A. Wichelhaus, "Can Magnets or Additional Intermaxillary Forces Improve the Mode of Action of Jumping-the-bite
Plates?" Fortschr Kieferorthop, 55(6), December 1994, p. 279-289.
98. D. Zaffe, et al., "PEMFS Improve Bone Adaptation in Orthodontically Treated Rabbits," Second World Congress for Electricity
and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
99. V.E. Kriokshina, et al., "Use of Micromagnets in Stomatology," Magnitologiia, (1), 1991, p. 17-20.
100. L.C. Rhodes, "The Adjunctive Utilization of Diapulse Therapy (Pulsed High Peak Power Electromagnetic Energy) in Accelerating
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101. V. Hillier-Kolarov & N. Pekaric-Nadj, "PEMF Therapy as an Additional Therapy for Oral Diseases," European Bioelectromagnetics
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102. A.A. Kunin, et al., "Magnetolaser Therapy in Complex Treatment of Periodontal Diseases," Fiz Med, 4(1-2), 1994, p. 103-104.
103. M.T. Kirkcaldie, et al., Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as Therapy for Depression and Other Disorders," Aust N Z J Psychiatry,
31(2), April 1997, p. 264-272.
104. R. Sandyk, et al., "Magnetic Felds and Seasonality of Affective Illness: Implications for Therapy," International Journal
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105. C. Haag, et al., "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. A Diagnostic Means from Neurology as Therapy in Psychiatry?" Nervenarzt,
68(3), March 1997, p. 274-278.
106. T. Zyss, "Will Electroconvulsive Therapy Induce Seizures: Magnetic Brain Stimulation as Hypothesis of a New Psychiatric
Therapy," Psychiatr Pol, 26(6), November-December 1992, p. 531-541.
107. G.V. Morozov, et al., "Extremely-High Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation in the Treatment of Neurotic Depression in Women,"
Millimeter Waves in Medicine and Biology. Digest of Papers of the 10th Russian Symposium with International Participation,
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108. G.V. Morozov, et al., "Treatment of Neurotic Depression with a Help of Extremely High Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation,"
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109. A. Conca, et al., "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Novel Antidepressive Strategy?" Neuropsychobiology, 34(4), 1996,
110. V.P. Adaskevich, "Effectiveness of the Use of Millimeter-Range Electromagnetic Radiation in Complex Treatment of Atopic
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111. I.B. Kirillovm, et al., "Magentotherapy in the Comprehensive Treatment of Vascular Complications of Diabetes Mellitus,"
Klin Med, 74(5), 1996, p. 39-41.
112. M.I. Shved & A.P. Dudnik, "The Medical Effect of Magnetic-laser Therapy in Patients with Diabetic Angiopathies of the
Lower Extremities," Lik Sprava, (10-12), October-December 1996, p. 155-158.
113. R.A. Kuliev & R.F. Babaev, "A Magnetic Field in the Combined Treatment of Suppurative Wounds in Diabetes Mellitus,"
Vestn Khir Im I I Grek, 148(1), January 1992, p. 33-36.
114. R.A. Kuliev, et al., "Treatment of Suppurative Wounds in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Magnetic Field and Laser Irradiation,"
Khirurgliia, (7-8), 1992, p. 30-33.
115. V.A. Lebedev, "Treatment of Neurogenic Dysfunction of the Bladder and Enuresis in Children with a SKENAR Apparatus," Vopr
Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (4), 1995, p. 25-26.
116. L.G. Vassilenko, "EHF Electromagnetic Radiation in Treat-ment of Obliterating Diseases of Inferior Limb Vessels," Second
World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
117. D.I. Tarasov, et al., "Effectiveness of Local Magnetic Field of the Acoustic Frequency in the Treatment of Patients with
Acute Inflammatory Diseases of the Larynx," Vestn Otorinolaringol, (6), November-December 1995, p. 11-15.
118. A.D. Burigina, et al., "Electromagnetic Waves in Complex Therapy of Children with Birth Trauma: Effects of Ultra-High-Frequency
Electric Fields on Central Hemodynamics and the Shoulder Plexus," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (4), 1992, 35-38.
119. M. Damirov, et al., "Magnetic-Infared-Laser Therapeutic Apparatus (MILTA) in Treatment of Patients with Endometriosis,"
Vrach, 12, 1994, p. 17-19.
120. V.M. Strugatskii, et al., "A Permanent Magnetic Field in the Combined Treatment of Acute Endometritis After an Artificial
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121. P.A. Anninos, et al., "Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Partial Seizures," International Journal of Neurosci, 60(3-4),
October 1991, p. 141-171.
122. G.D. Antimonii & R.A. Salamov, "Action of a Modulated Electromagnetic Field on Experimentally Induced Epileptiform Brain
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123. M.J. McLean, et al., "Therapeutic Efficacy of a Static Magnetic Device in Three Animal Seizure Models: Summary of Experience,"
Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
124. F. Sartucci, et al., "Human Exposure to Oscillating Magnetic Fields Produces Changes in Pain Perception and Pain-Related
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997,
125. R. Sandyk & P.A. Anninos, "Attenuation of Epilepsy with Application of External Magnetic Fields: A Case Report," International
Journal of Neurosci, 66(1-2), September 1992, p. 75-85.
126. R. Sandyk & P.A. Anninos, "Magnetic Fields Alter the Circadian Periodicity of Seizures," International Journal of Neurosci,
63(3-4), April 1992, p. 265-274.
127. V.I. Bulynin, et al., "The Restoration of Esophageal Patency in Cicatricial Strictures Using Magnetic Elements," Grud Serdechnososudistaia
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128. E.A. Luzhnikov, et a., "The Use of Magnetic Hemotherapy in Combined Detoxification in Acute Exogenous Poisonings," Klin
Med, 73(3), 1995, p. 37-40.
129. L.M. Petrukhina, et al., "Effect of a Decimeter Wave Electromagnetic Fields on the Motor Function of the Stomach in Children
with Strong Gastroduodenitis," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (1), 1987, p. 54-56.
130. O.V. Bukanovich, et al., "Sinusoidally-Modulated Currents in the Therapy of Chronic Gastroduodenitis in Children," Vopr
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131. L. Navratil, et al., "Possible Therapeutic Applications of Pulsed Magnetic Fields," Cas Lek Cesk, 132(19), October 11, 1993,
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182. R. Sandyk, "Rapid Normalization of Visual Evoked Potentials picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Chronic Progressive Multiple
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183. R. Sandyk, "Further Observations on the Effects of External picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields on Visual Memory and Visuospatial
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185. R. Sandyk, "Progressive Cognitive Improvement in Multiple Sclerosis from Treatment with Electromagnetic Fields," International
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187. R. Sandyk, "Reversal of Alexia in Multiple Sclerosis Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2),
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188. R. Sandyk, "Long Term Beneficial Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields in Multiple Sclerosis," International Journal of
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189. R. Sandyk, "Suicidal Behavior is Attenuated in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Electromagnetic Fields,"
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190. R. Sandyk, "Treatment with Electromagnetic Field Alters the Clinical Course of Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis--A
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191. R. Sandyk, "Effect of Weak Electromagnetic Fields on Body Image Perception in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis," International
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192. R. Sandyk, "Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields Attenuates Carbohydrate Craving in a Patients with Multiple Sclerosis,"
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193. R. Sandyk, "Reversal of an Acute Parkinsonian Syndrome Associated with Multiple Sclerosis Application of Weak Electromagnetic
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194. R. Sandyk & L.C. Dann, "Resolution of Lhermitte's Sign in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,"
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195. R. Sandyk & L.C. Dann, "Weak Electromagnetic Fields Attenuate Tremor in Multiple Sclerosis," International Journal of
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196. R. Sandyk, "Reversal of Visuospatial Hemi-inattention in Patients with Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
with Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 79(3-4), December 1994, p. 169-184.
197. R. Sandyk, "Improvement in Word-fluency Performance in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Electromagnetic Fields," International
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198. R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, "Improvement PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields of Perceptual-motor Performance and Visual Memory
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199. R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, "Multiple Sclerosis: Improvement of Visuoperceptive Functions PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields,"
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200. R. Sandyk, "Application of Weak Electromagnetic Fields Facilitates Sensory-motor Integration in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis,"
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201. R. Sandyk, "Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields Improves Fatigue Associated with Multiple Sclerosis," International
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202. R. Sandyk, "Resolution of Partial Cataplexy in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International
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203. R. Sandyk, "Weak Electromagnetic Fields Restore Dream Recall in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis," International Journal
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204. R. Sandyk, "Weak Electromagnetic Fields Improve Body Image Perception in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis," International
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205. R. Sandyk, "Premenstrual Exacerbation of Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis is Attenuated Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic
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206. R. Sandyk & K. Derpapas, "Successful Treatment of an Acute Exacerbation of Multiple Sclerosis External Magnetic Fields,"
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207. R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, "Resolution of Longstanding Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Application of PicoTesla Range Magnetic
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208. R. Sandyk & K. Derpapas, "Magnetic Fields Normalize Visual Evoked Potentials and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials
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209. A. Guseo, "Double-Blind Treatments with Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in Multiple Sclerosis," Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy,
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224. D.H. Trock, et al., "The Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Cervical
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233. C.T. Rubin, et al., "Prevention of Osteoporosis Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields," Journal of Bone Joint Surg, 71(3), March
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235. F. Tabrah, et al., "Bone Density Changes in Osteoporosis-prone Women Exposed to Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs),"
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236. T.W. Bilotta, et al., "The Use of Low-Frequency Low Magnitude PEMFs in Treatment of Osteoporosis," Journal of Bioelectr,
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237. T.W. Bilotta, et al., "Influence of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis," First World Congress
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238. G. Saveriano & S. Ricci, "Treatment of Senile Osteoporosis Caused Rachialgia with Low-Frequency PEMFs," Journal of Bioelectr,
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239. V.V. Sunstov, "Treatment of Acute Diffuse Otitis Externa Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields," Vestn Otorinolaringol, 6, 1991,
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242. O.G. Savina, et al., "A Low-Frequency Pulsed Current and a Low-Intensity Laser Radiation in the Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis,"
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243. R. Sandyk, "Brief Communication: Electromagnetic Fields Improve Visuospatial Performance and Reverse Agraphia in a Parkinsonian
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244. R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, "Reversal of Visual Neglect in Parkinson's Disease Treatment with picoTesla Range Magnetic
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245. R. Sandyk, "Magnetic Fields in the Therapy of Parkinsonism," International Journal of Neurosci, 66(3-4), October 1992, p.
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247. J. Bardasano, et al., "Extracranial Device for Noninvasive Neurological Treatments with Pulsating ELF Magnetic Fields,"
Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
248. R. Sandyk, "Parkinsonian Micrographia Reversed Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci,
81(1-2), March 1995, p. 83-93.
249. R. Sandyk, "Improvement in Short-term Visual Memory Weak Electromagnetic Fields in Parkinson's Disease," International Journal
of Neurosci, 81(1-2), March 1995, p. 67-82.
250. R. Sandyk, "Weak Electromagnetic Fields Reverse Visuospatial Hemi-inattention in Parkinson's Disease," International Journal
of Neurosci, 81(1-2), March 1995, p. 47-65.
251. R. Sandyk, "A Drug Naive Parkinsonian Patient Successfully Treated with Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International Journal
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252. R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, "Reversal of Micrographia in Parkinson's Disease Application of picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields,"
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253. R. Sandyk, "Improvement in Word-fluency Performance in Parkinson's Disease Administration of Electromagnetic Fields," International
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254. R. Sandyk, "Treatment of Parkinson's Disease with Magnetic Fields Reduces the Requirement for Antiparkinsonian Medications,"
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255. R. Sandyk, "Reversal of a Visuoconstructional Deficit in Parkinson's Disease Application of External Magnetic Fields: A
Report of Five Cases," International Journal of Neurosci, 75(3-4), April 1994, p. 213-228.
256. R. Sandyk, "Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease is Improved Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International
Journal of Neurosci, 85(1-2), March 1996, p. 111-124.
257. R. Sandyk, "Improvement of Body Image Perception in Parkinson's Disease Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International
Journal of Neurosci, 82(3-4), June 1995, p. 269-283.
258. R. Sandyk, "Reversal of Visuospatial Deficit on the Clock Drawing Test in Parkinson's Disease Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic
Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 82(3-4), June 1995, p. 255-268.
259. R. Sandyk & K. Derpapas, "The Effects of External picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields on the EEG in Parkinson's Disease,"
International Journal of Neurosci, 70(1-2), May 1993, p. 85-96.
260. R. Sandyk & K. Derpapas, "Further Observations on the Unique Efficacy of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Parkinson's
Disease," International Journal of Neurosci, 69(1-4), March-April 1993, p. 67-83.
261. R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, "Rapid Improvement of Visuoperceptive Functions picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Patients
with Parkinson's Disease," International Journal of Neurosci, 70(3-4), June 1993, p. 233-254.
262. R. Sandyk, "The Effects of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields on Perceptual Organization and Visual Memory in Parkinsonism,"
International Journal of Neurosci, 73(3-4), December 1993, p. 207-219.
263. R. Sandyk, et al., "Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease," International Journal of Neurosci, 63(1-2),
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264. R. Sandyk, "Weak Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease with the "On-off" Phenomenon," International Journal
of Neurosci, 66(1-2), September 1992, p. 97-106.
265. O. Vassilenko and N.F. Vassilenko, "Use of Extremely High Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation for Treating Peripheral Neuritis,"
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266. E.A. Gaidashev, et al., "An Evaluation of the Effect of Magnetic-laser Therapy on External Respiratory Function in Complicated
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